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Table 7 Full Results for Marginal Effects of On-set ADLs on Mental Unhealthy Days by using Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Regression

From: The Onset of ADL Difficulties and Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life

  Each ADL ADL Counts
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
  MENUD MENUD MENUD MENUD MENUD MENUD MENUD
N 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282
Physically Unhealthy Days (PHYUD)_Baseline
Mentally Unhealthy Days (MENUD)_Baseline 0.933*** 0.935*** 0.961*** 0.942*** 0.958*** 0.946*** 0.883***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Male -0.153*** -0.183*** -0.138*** -0.173*** -0.180*** -0.164*** -0.207***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Race Category
White 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Black 0.212*** 0.217*** 0.241*** 0.275*** 0.300*** 0.229*** 0.270***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.05)
Other -0.0592 -0.0596 -0.0903 -0.0322 -0.0778 -0.0920 -0.0477
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Asian -0.0604 -0.0703 -0.0775 -0.0405 -0.0598 -0.107 -0.0664
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Hispanic 0.304*** 0.282*** 0.314*** 0.285*** 0.302*** 0.306*** 0.261***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
American Native 0.517* 0.490* 0.476* 0.461* 0.437* 0.531* 0.420*
  (0.21) (0.20) (0.20) (0.20) (0.20) (0.21) (0.20)
Unknown -0.388 -0.389 -0.402* -0.365 -0.291 -0.398* -0.329
  (0.21) (0.20) (0.20) (0.21) (0.22) (0.20) (0.21)
Education Category
<High School 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
High School or GED -0.389*** -0.401*** -0.422*** -0.425*** -0.397*** -0.415*** -0.362***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Some College or 2 year degree -0.498*** -0.521*** -0.541*** -0.544*** -0.503*** -0.539*** -0.473***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) (0.03) (0.04)
Four Year College Degree or More -0.662*** -0.684*** -0.707*** -0.707*** -0.656*** -0.704*** -0.624***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Missing -0.300** -0.328** -0.382*** -0.362** -0.352** -0.366** -0.327**
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12)
Income Category
<$10,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
$10,000-$19,999 -0.119** -0.129** -0.136*** -0.153*** -0.133** -0.134*** -0.0966*
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
20000-29999 -0.247*** -0.267*** -0.277*** -0.278*** -0.271*** -0.275*** -0.221***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
30000-49999 -0.385*** -0.410*** -0.427*** -0.421*** -0.394*** -0.431*** -0.339***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
>50000 -0.573*** -0.599*** -0.623*** -0.592*** -0.557*** -0.617*** -0.503***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Don't Know -0.134** -0.144** -0.139** -0.130* -0.120* -0.153** -0.0978
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Missing -0.393*** -0.408*** -0.418*** -0.418*** -0.408*** -0.428*** -0.352***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Marital Status
Married 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Divorced -0.0646* -0.0536 -0.0999** -0.0752* -0.0650* -0.0873** -0.0324
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Separated 0.0976 0.0729 0.0349 0.0719 0.106 0.0597 0.135
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.09) (0.10) (0.10) (0.09) (0.10)
Widowed -0.290*** -0.253*** -0.258*** -0.282*** -0.305*** -0.264*** -0.304***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Never Married -0.0505 -0.0214 -0.0682 -0.0512 -0.0464 -0.0659 -0.0139
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Missing -0.241* -0.214 -0.245* -0.273* -0.245* -0.212 -0.233*
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11)
Medical History
Hypertension 0.00915 0.0158 0.0108 -0.00132 -0.0373 0.0117 -0.0229
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease 0.141*** 0.139*** 0.135*** 0.141*** 0.102** 0.158*** 0.119***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Congestive Heart Failure 0.177*** 0.199*** 0.216*** 0.189*** 0.144** 0.191*** 0.121**
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Myocardial Infarction Question 0.00527 0.0201 0.0329 0.00670 0.00122 0.0206 -0.0132
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Other Heart Conditions Question 0.0508* 0.0544* 0.0578* 0.0280 0.0167 0.0543* 0.0180
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Stroke 0.238*** 0.255*** 0.282*** 0.237*** 0.207*** 0.271*** 0.165***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
COPD 0.197*** 0.219*** 0.229*** 0.222*** 0.162*** 0.233*** 0.169***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.258*** 0.244*** 0.237*** 0.244*** 0.230*** 0.236*** 0.235***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee 0.0525* 0.0546* 0.0852*** -0.0154 -0.0522* 0.0592* -0.0550*
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist 0.178*** 0.176*** 0.172*** 0.165*** 0.169*** 0.179*** 0.159***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Osteoporosis 0.0873** 0.0909** 0.105*** 0.0839** 0.0783** 0.0917*** 0.0750**
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Sciatica 0.173*** 0.175*** 0.178*** 0.151*** 0.129*** 0.171*** 0.136***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Diabetes 0.126*** 0.138*** 0.145*** 0.115*** 0.104*** 0.141*** 0.0906***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Any Cancer -0.0167 -0.0169 -0.0176 -0.0149 -0.0278 -0.0128 -0.0367
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Hypertension_Missing -0.131 -0.129 -0.119 -0.0964 -0.0786 -0.0997 -0.134
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease_Missing 0.0740 0.0904 0.0896 0.0978 0.120 0.0961 0.109
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.10) (0.10) (0.09) (0.10)
Congestive Heart Failure_Missing -0.0295 -0.0409 -0.0567 -0.00152 -0.0670 -0.0397 -0.0420
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12)
Myocardial Infarction Question_Missing -0.0127 -0.0347 0.00136 -0.0153 -0.0110 -0.0144 -0.0472
  (0.12) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12)
Other Heart Conditions Question_Missing -0.111 -0.108 -0.103 -0.132 -0.130 -0.115 -0.121
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12)
Stroke_Missing 0.210 0.216 0.262* 0.271* 0.258* 0.264* 0.251*
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12)
COPD_Missing 0.0489 0.0521 0.00631 0.0364 0.0394 0.0397 0.0502
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease_Missing 0.0409 0.0125 0.00563 0.00744 -0.00791 -0.00266 0.0163
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.10)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee_Missing 0.224* 0.199 0.219* 0.142 0.109 0.226* 0.128
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist_Missing 0.0148 0.0505 0.0181 0.0205 0.0407 0.0622 0.0193
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Osteoporosis_Missing 0.0810 0.0730 0.0755 0.0615 0.0386 0.0641 0.0506
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.11)
Sciatica_Missing 0.203* 0.206* 0.235* 0.221* 0.221* 0.213* 0.208*
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10)
Diabetes_Missing 0.0563 0.0292 0.0821 0.0456 0.0476 0.0609 0.0407
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Any Cancer_Missing -0.00607 -0.00263 -0.0347 -0.00965 0.0326 -0.0129 -0.00368
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12)
Housing Category
Owned or being bought by you 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Owned or being bought by someone in your family 0.188*** 0.211*** 0.230*** 0.220*** 0.190*** 0.226*** 0.159***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Rented for money 0.174*** 0.188*** 0.201*** 0.180*** 0.156*** 0.187*** 0.141***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Live without payment of rent 0.0783 0.0956 0.118 0.0861 0.0896 0.112 0.0585
  (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08)
None of the above 0.263*** 0.263*** 0.271*** 0.274*** 0.247*** 0.238*** 0.234***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Missing 0.203* 0.203* 0.231** 0.212* 0.202* 0.199* 0.190*
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
BMI Category
Underweight ( < 20) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Normal (20-24) -0.125* -0.148** -0.141** -0.184*** -0.162** -0.174*** -0.112*
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Overweight (25-29) -0.196*** -0.229*** -0.220*** -0.292*** -0.272*** -0.263*** -0.202***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Obese (30-34) -0.178*** -0.210*** -0.183*** -0.311*** -0.309*** -0.242*** -0.236***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Morbid Obesity (>=35) -0.219*** -0.248*** -0.187** -0.364*** -0.399*** -0.265*** -0.321***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Missing -0.0374 -0.0587 -0.0290 -0.128 -0.124 -0.103 -0.0830
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Current Smoker 0.289*** 0.304*** 0.287*** 0.316*** 0.260*** 0.309*** 0.275***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Current Smoker_Missing -0.0913 -0.0803 -0.0980 -0.0649 -0.0640 -0.0752 -0.0653
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis -0.0854** -0.0979*** -0.0981*** -0.0960*** -0.0904** -0.107*** -0.0699*
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis_Missing 0.188* 0.163 0.196* 0.186* 0.199* 0.193* 0.178*
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Urine Leakage 0.187*** 0.186*** 0.197*** 0.150*** 0.148*** 0.178*** 0.133***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Urine Leakage_Missing 0.361*** 0.349*** 0.359*** 0.334*** 0.330*** 0.342*** 0.317***
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities -0.134*** -0.143*** -0.156*** -0.143*** -0.134*** -0.145*** -0.122***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities_Missing 0.0674 0.0697 0.0695 0.0615 0.0617 0.0799 0.0702
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
ADL Items
Bathing 2.995***       
  (0.03)       
Dressing   3.193***      
   (0.04)      
Eating    3.538***     
    (0.05)     
Getting In/Out of Chairs     2.256***    
     (0.03)    
Walking      2.072***   
      (0.02)   
Using the Toilet       3.274***  
       (0.04)  
ADL Scale        
0        0
        (.)
1        1.391***
        (0.04)
2        2.558***
        (0.06)
3        4.352***
        (0.12)
4        6.358***
        (0.17)
5        8.541***
        (0.24)
6        9.799***
        (0.22)
Benefit Duration Less than 1 Year -0.0510* -0.0541* -0.0634* -0.0447 -0.0378 -0.0559* -0.0368
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Plan Duration Less than 5 Year -0.0145 -0.0199 -0.0194 -0.0198 -0.0153 -0.0183 -0.0185
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Year Trend -0.0581*** -0.0583*** -0.0600*** -0.0561*** -0.0575*** -0.0572*** -0.0556***
  (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
  1. Notes: This is the full results for Panel A of Table 3 with adjustment for covariates listed in Table 1 except baseline PCS, MCS and PUD. *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01