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Table 4 Full OLS estimates of ADL measures on PCS

From: The Onset of ADL Difficulties and Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life

  Each ADL ADL Counts
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
  PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS
N 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282
R-Squared 0.435 0.428 0.401 0.447 0.486 0.414 0.507
PCS_Baseline 0.555*** 0.564*** 0.581*** 0.543*** 0.502*** 0.574*** 0.488***
  (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Male -0.0951** 0.00173 -0.0843* -0.0110 0.00990 -0.0482 0.0795**
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Race Category
White 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Black 0.278*** 0.253*** 0.217*** 0.0699 -0.0657 0.218*** 0.0262
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Other 0.188* 0.214* 0.259** 0.0882 0.116 0.254** 0.0287
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Asian -0.331*** -0.323*** -0.293** -0.430*** -0.409*** -0.234** -0.433***
  (0.08) (0.09) (0.10) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09)
Hispanic -0.220* -0.140 -0.246* -0.156 -0.235* -0.219* -0.0784
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.09) (0.10) (0.09)
American Native -0.895* -0.891** -0.952** -0.899** -0.803** -0.990** -0.756*
  (0.36) (0.34) (0.36) (0.35) (0.30) (0.36) (0.30)
Unknown 0.863*** 0.889*** 0.839*** 0.710** 0.570** 0.797*** 0.601**
  (0.21) (0.22) (0.22) (0.22) (0.21) (0.22) (0.20)
Education Category
<High School 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
High School or GED 0.454*** 0.481*** 0.540*** 0.531*** 0.468*** 0.519*** 0.403***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Some College or 2 year degree 0.698*** 0.746*** 0.784*** 0.809*** 0.740*** 0.781*** 0.697***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Four Year College Degree or More 1.033*** 1.083*** 1.116*** 1.158*** 1.049*** 1.116*** 1.032***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Missing 0.129 0.172 0.219 0.229 0.135 0.216 0.118
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12)
Income Category
<$10,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
$10,000-$19,999 0.0469 0.0951 0.135* 0.114* 0.116* 0.104 0.00904
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
20000-29999 0.320*** 0.377*** 0.437*** 0.390*** 0.370*** 0.406*** 0.238***
  (0.05) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05) (0.06) (0.05)
30000-49999 0.662*** 0.736*** 0.799*** 0.726*** 0.687*** 0.765*** 0.536***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
>50000 1.177*** 1.243*** 1.320*** 1.204*** 1.158*** 1.278*** 0.993***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05)
Don't Know 0.434*** 0.475*** 0.493*** 0.417*** 0.404*** 0.492*** 0.316***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Missing 0.618*** 0.680*** 0.746*** 0.668*** 0.638*** 0.727*** 0.476***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05)
Marital Status
Married 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Divorced 0.413*** 0.384*** 0.456*** 0.416*** 0.425*** 0.434*** 0.390***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Separated 0.335* 0.367** 0.429** 0.408** 0.434** 0.408** 0.408**
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13)
Widowed -0.255*** -0.348*** -0.344*** -0.260*** -0.105*** -0.326*** -0.105***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Never Married 0.650*** 0.574*** 0.638*** 0.641*** 0.641*** 0.630*** 0.647***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05)
Missing 0.108 0.0186 0.101 0.194 0.247 0.0769 0.252
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13)
Medical History
Hypertension -0.622*** -0.628*** -0.608*** -0.614*** -0.501*** -0.617*** -0.558***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease -0.579*** -0.591*** -0.558*** -0.600*** -0.498*** -0.591*** -0.548***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.04) (0.04) (0.05) (0.04)
Congestive Heart Failure -0.838*** -0.909*** -0.980*** -0.910*** -0.690*** -0.925*** -0.672***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.06) (0.07) (0.06)
Myocardial Infarction Question -0.443*** -0.445*** -0.469*** -0.439*** -0.383*** -0.463*** -0.371***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Other Heart Conditions Question -0.730*** -0.728*** -0.730*** -0.658*** -0.634*** -0.722*** -0.629***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Stroke -0.753*** -0.812*** -0.927*** -0.698*** -0.567*** -0.886*** -0.411***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
COPD -1.388*** -1.463*** -1.481*** -1.529*** -1.304*** -1.503*** -1.329***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease -0.348*** -0.324*** -0.325*** -0.292*** -0.334*** -0.295*** -0.282***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.07) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee -1.096*** -1.087*** -1.125*** -0.848*** -0.683*** -1.081*** -0.678***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist -0.567*** -0.546*** -0.550*** -0.498*** -0.540*** -0.556*** -0.498***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Osteoporosis -0.350*** -0.371*** -0.387*** -0.337*** -0.340*** -0.366*** -0.308***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.03) (0.04) (0.03)
Sciatica -0.641*** -0.632*** -0.638*** -0.576*** -0.463*** -0.623*** -0.492***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Diabetes -0.619*** -0.639*** -0.668*** -0.569*** -0.507*** -0.649*** -0.472***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Any Cancer -0.454*** -0.459*** -0.441*** -0.450*** -0.411*** -0.461*** -0.403***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Hypertension_Missing -0.310 -0.326* -0.318 -0.366* -0.406** -0.319 -0.337*
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.17) (0.16) (0.15) (0.16) (0.16)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease_Missing -0.0536 -0.110 -0.101 -0.125 -0.139 -0.0934 -0.123
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.12)
Congestive Heart Failure_Missing -0.232 -0.167 -0.163 -0.297* -0.219 -0.180 -0.300*
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13)
Myocardial Infarction Question_Missing -0.0373 -0.00857 -0.0936 -0.0246 -0.0281 -0.0764 0.0759
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.17) (0.16) (0.15) (0.16) (0.15)
Other Heart Conditions Question_Missing -0.263* -0.233 -0.285* -0.244 -0.286* -0.228 -0.241
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.12)
Stroke_Missing -0.120 -0.139 -0.154 -0.151 -0.0876 -0.167 -0.0794
  (0.15) (0.15) (0.15) (0.15) (0.15) (0.15) (0.14)
COPD_Missing -0.286 -0.355* -0.303 -0.283 -0.244 -0.297 -0.290
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.17) (0.16) (0.16) (0.17) (0.15)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease_Missing -0.138 -0.0947 -0.138 -0.139 -0.0980 -0.127 -0.0826
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee_Missing -0.454*** -0.408** -0.431** -0.313* -0.268* -0.461*** -0.249*
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist_Missing -0.230 -0.256* -0.253* -0.221 -0.243* -0.270* -0.225*
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12) (0.11) (0.13) (0.11)
Osteoporosis_Missing -0.128 -0.194 -0.177 -0.0982 -0.127 -0.175 -0.108
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.11) (0.12) (0.11)
Sciatica_Missing -0.495*** -0.450*** -0.475*** -0.468*** -0.375** -0.441** -0.427**
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13)
Diabetes_Missing 0.122 0.183 0.0992 0.101 0.161 0.108 0.175
  (0.15) (0.16) (0.16) (0.15) (0.15) (0.16) (0.14)
Any Cancer_Missing -0.158 -0.149 -0.119 -0.110 -0.0972 -0.139 -0.0818
  (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.16) (0.17) (0.16)
Housing Category
Owned or being bought by you 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Owned or being bought by someone in your family -0.460*** -0.497*** -0.543*** -0.484*** -0.422*** -0.520*** -0.352***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Rented for money -0.220*** -0.269*** -0.310*** -0.237*** -0.111** -0.272*** -0.0617
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Live without payment of rent -0.440*** -0.444*** -0.519*** -0.414*** -0.441*** -0.514*** -0.344***
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.11) (0.10) (0.09) (0.10) (0.09)
None of the above -0.112 -0.148* -0.182** -0.134* -0.0528 -0.139* 0.0288
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.06) (0.07) (0.06)
Missing -0.137 -0.143 -0.193* -0.128 -0.0678 -0.157 -0.0422
  (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.09) (0.08)
BMI Category
Underweight ( < 20) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Normal (20-24) 0.288*** 0.336*** 0.361*** 0.422*** 0.354*** 0.408*** 0.272***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.05)
Overweight (25-29) 0.00587 0.0817 0.119* 0.262*** 0.200*** 0.178** 0.0831
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Obese (30-34) -0.524*** -0.434*** -0.422*** -0.151* -0.134* -0.339*** -0.263***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Morbid Obesity (>=35) -1.235*** -1.151*** -1.191*** -0.749*** -0.510*** -1.069*** -0.670***
  (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.07) (0.07) (0.08) (0.07)
Missing -0.184 -0.108 -0.147 0.0766 0.0856 -0.0361 0.00777
  (0.10) (0.11) (0.11) (0.10) (0.10) (0.11) (0.10)
Current Smoker -0.713*** -0.770*** -0.733*** -0.826*** -0.589*** -0.762*** -0.636***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.04) (0.05) (0.04)
Current Smoker_Missing 0.0580 0.0592 0.0431 0.0256 0.0192 0.0475 -0.0201
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis 0.0966** 0.141*** 0.153*** 0.133*** 0.116*** 0.153*** 0.0716*
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis_Missing -0.193* -0.166 -0.226* -0.211* -0.283** -0.222* -0.201*
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.09) (0.09) (0.10) (0.09)
Urine Leakage -0.708*** -0.712*** -0.762*** -0.565*** -0.547*** -0.708*** -0.441***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.02) (0.03) (0.02)
Urine Leakage_Missing -0.557*** -0.540*** -0.591*** -0.505*** -0.438*** -0.572*** -0.365***
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities 0.257*** 0.285*** 0.309*** 0.262*** 0.216*** 0.293*** 0.195***
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities_Missing 0.133 0.147 0.155* 0.122 0.107 0.142 0.0826
  (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.07) (0.08) (0.07)
ADL Items
Bathing -10.84***       
  (0.09)       
Dressing   -11.29***      
   (0.10)      
Eating    -9.176***     
    (0.14)     
Getting In/Out of Chairs     -8.983***    
     (0.06)    
Walking      -9.493***   
      (0.05)   
Using the Toilet       -10.67***  
       (0.11)  
ADL Counts        
0        0
        (.)
1        -7.100***
        (0.05)
2        -9.618***
        (0.06)
3        -12.26***
        (0.11)
4        -14.56***
        (0.16)
5        -16.53***
        (0.18)
6        -13.36***
        (0.20)
Benefit Durantion Less than 1 Year 0.159*** 0.156*** 0.157*** 0.143*** 0.120*** 0.160*** 0.127***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Plan Duration Less than 5 Year 0.0860* 0.0978* 0.0967* 0.0876* 0.0712 0.0845 0.0750
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Year Trend 0.0941*** 0.0927*** 0.0996*** 0.0820*** 0.0921*** 0.0927*** 0.0838***
  (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
Constant 19.27*** 18.57*** 17.49*** 19.63*** 21.91*** 17.87*** 23.09***
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13)
  1. Notes: This is the full results for Panel A of Table 2 with adjustment for covariates listed in Table 1 except baseline MCS, PUD and MUD. *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01