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Table 2 Key for Tables 1 and 3 Interpreting the direction of effect in included reviews

From: The effectiveness of integrated care interventions in improving patient quality of life (QoL) for patients with chronic conditions. An overview of the systematic review evidence

Symbol Interpretation
At least half of a given review’s included primary studies showed a statistically significant increase in a particular outcome following the intervention (or pooled results from a meta-analysis indicated a statistically significant positive association)
At least half of a given review’s included primary studies showed a statistically significant decrease in a particular outcome following the intervention (or pooled results from a meta-analysis indicated a statistically significant negative association)
A review reported mixed findings i.e. some primary studies may have shown a significant difference between intervention and control groups whereas others showed no significant differences
= A review where no significant differences between intervention and control groups were reported in any of the included primary studies