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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the participants (n = 4001) and mean utility scores

From: Health-related quality of life in the Brazilian Amazon: a population-based cross-sectional study

Variables n %a Mean utility scores p valuec
Sex
 Female 2113 52.8 0.872 Ref.d
 Male 1888 47.2 0.901 <0.001
Age group (years)
 18–24 838 20.9 0.912 Ref.
 25–34 1152 28.8 0.904 0.174
 35–44 843 21.1 0.891 0.004
 45–59 772 19.3 0.858 <0.001
 ≤60 396 9.9 0.822 <0.001
Marital status
 Single 2173 54.3 0.898 Ref.
 Separated/divorced 260 6.5 0.843 <0.001
 Widowed 159 4.0 0.825 <0.001
 Married 1409 35.2 0.881 <0.001
Pregnancy (last 12 months)
 No 1890 89.5 0.870 Ref.
 Yes 223 10.5 0.891 0.051
Ethnicity
 White 636 15.9 0.897 Ref.
 Black 300 7.5 0.904 0.196
 Asian 138 3.5 0.881 0.265
 Brown 2886 72.2 0.882 0.012
 Indigenous 41 1.0 0.863 0.148
Educational level
 Higher education or above 158 4.0 0.892 Ref.
 High school 1903 47.5 0.903 0.300
 Middle school 649 16.2 0.899 0.543
 Elementary school or less 1291 32.3 0.853 0.004
Work status
 Formal 761 19.0 0.907 Ref.
 Informal 1149 28.8 0.882 <0.001
 Retired 315 7.9 0.808 <0.001
 Unemployed 1199 29.9 0.890 0.034
 Does not work 577 14.4 0.899 0.957
Social classe
 A/B1 124 3.1 0.930 Ref.
 B2 505 12.6 0.921 0.456
 C1 862 21.5 0.905 0.032
 C2 1423 35.6 0.884 <0.001
 D/E 1087 27.1 0.852 <0.001
Health perception
 Very good 471 11.9 0.920 Ref.
 Good 2175 54.3 0.921 0.514
 Fair 1108 27.7 0.843 <0.001
 Bad 193 4.8 0.738 <0.001
 Very bad 54 1.3 0.607 <0.001
  1. aFrequency adjusted by sample complex design
  2. bHRQoL values were measured by European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels instrument and transformed as utility values based on values from a previous study in the Brazilian population [28]
  3. cTobit unadjusted regression analysis
  4. dRef., reference
  5. eSocial class according to the Brazilian criteria of economic classification [26]