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Table 2 Socio-demographic correlates of symptoms of depression and anxiety

From: Psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals with mental illness: a hospital based study

Socio-demographic Variables Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7)
Odd Ratio 95% CI p value Odd Ratio 95% CI p value
Age Group
 21–34 7.06 0.79 63.46 .081 2.45 0.26 22.87 .430
 35–49 14.53 1.96 107.86 .009 1.71 0.23 12.84 .604
 50–64 6.37 1.06 38.44 .043 2.10 0.37 12.08 .404
 65+ Reference        
Ethnicity
 Malay 1.75 0.67 4.53 .252 1.21 0.43 3.46 .717
 Indian 0.74 0.27 2.06 .570 0.43 0.12 1.59 .207
 Others 4.14 0.35 49.68 .262 1.81 0.14 23.45 .651
 Chinese Reference        
Gender
 Men 1.57 0.64 3.85 .326 1.23 0.45 3.32 .688
 Women Reference        
Marital Status
 Single 2.49 0.79 7.85 .120 1.23 0.33 4.67 .758
 Widowed 0.07 0.00 1.15 .063 0.16 0.01 2.54 .193
 Divorced/Separated 1.28 0.23 7.14 .779 0.36 0.04 2.98 .344
 Married Reference        
Education
 No formal/Primary 2.12 0.49 9.21 .317 2.03 0.36 11.49 .424
 Secondary 1.09 0.36 3.35 .880 1.63 0.43 6.28 .474
 Vocational 1.61 0.31 8.30 .571 1.03 0.13 8.00 .975
 A level / Pre-university / Diploma 0.97 0.30 3.11 .955 1.29 0.32 5.18 .718
 University & Above Reference        
Employment Status
 Students and Homemakers 1.78 0.71 4.50 .220 0.75 0.26 2.20 .598
 Unemployed 4.00 1.08 14.72 .037 2.76 0.66 11.57 .166
 Employed Reference        
Relationship of primary caregivers with Ill relative
 Spouse 0.77 0.24 2.45 .663 0.82 0.23 2.98 .763
 Son/Daughter 0.08 0.02 0.40 .002 1.25 0.25 6.22 .785
 Siblings 0.24 0.04 1.45 .120 1.98 0.31 12.83 .474
 Other Relatives 0.08 0.00 1.56 .097 1.00    
 Parent Reference        
Living Arrangement
 Lives alone 4.62 0.04 509.24 .523 1.08 0.01 78.96 .971
 Lives with parents 3.37 0.91 12.54 .070 0.60 0.11 3.12 .539
 Lives with other relatives 0.56 0.03 10.06 .694 0.18 0.01 3.96 .276
 Lives with children 2.62 0.65 10.63 .177 2.60 0.58 11.60 .212
 Others 8.52 1.44 50.58 .018 6.95 1.15 41.81 .034
 Lives with Spouse/partner Reference        
Diagnosis of Ill relative
 Early Psychosis 0.85 0.18 4.06 .841 2.67 0.57 12.51 .212
 Depressive disorder 1.33 0.58 3.04 .500 1.31 0.52 3.30 .570
 Anxiety disorder (OCD & GAD) 1.15 0.30 4.46 .838 1.29 0.26 6.38 .754
 Dementia 5.38 1.07 26.89 .041 1.56 0.22 10.88 .652
 Others 0.12 0.01 1.37 .088 0.72 0.06 8.43 .792
 Unknown 0.46 0.09 2.50 .372 0.47 0.05 4.37 .509
 Chronic Schizophrenia Reference        
FIS scores 1.41 1.26 1.59 <.001 1.40 1.23 1.60 <.001
Nagelkerke R-square 0.27 0.24
Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test 274,21, p value = 0.8135 314.38, p value =0.116
  1. p value <0.05 is highlight in bold