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Table 3 HAQL Adolescents - Known-groups validity for the proposed score (significant results are given in boldface)

From: Validation of the French versions of the Hirschsprung’s disease and Anorectal malformations Quality of Life (HAQL) questionnaires for adolescents and adults

Dimensions Disease statusa
HD N = 16
ARM N = 34
Clinical status
Autonomy status a
Usual A. N = 37
Lower A. N = 9
Soiling b
Grade 0 N = 22
Grade 1 N = 18
Grade 2 N = 3
Grade 3 N = 3
Constipation b
Grade 0 N = 28
Grade 1 N = 3
Grade 2 N = 5
Grade 3 N = 5
Voluntary bowel movements b
Grade 0 N = 25
Grade 1 N = 4
Grade 2 N = 2
Grade 3 N = 3
Overall scale 608 ± 96
p = 0.95
Usual A.: 628 ± 65
Lower A.: 484 ± 130
p= 0.0261
Grade 0: 650 ± 39
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 564 ± 109
p= 0.0224
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 616 ± 85
Grade 3: 479 ± 137
p= 0.0134
608 ± 96
p= 0.0127
1- Laxative Diet 89 ± 18
p = 0.73
Usual A.: 92 ± 16
Lower A.: 71 ± 21
p= 0.0288
89 ± 18
p = 0.29
Grade 0: 94 ± 11
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 72 ± 23
p= 0.0008
89 ± 18
p = 0.21
2- Presence of Diarrhea 83 ± 25
p = 0.63
84 ± 25
p = 0.18
84 ± 25
p = 0.31
84 ± 25
p = 0.94
84 ± 25
p = 0.44
3- Fecal Continence 86 ± 19
p = 0.59
Usual A.: 90 ± 16
Lower A.: 62 ± 16
P= 0.0008
Grade 0: 97 ± 6
Grade 1: 83 ± 16
Grade 2: 67 ± 11
Grade 3: 43 ± 17
p< 0.0001
Grade 0 or 1: 85 ± 19
Grade 2 or 3: 69 ± 19
p= 0.0067
Grade 0: 89 ± 18
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 67 ± 13
p= 0.0141
4- Urinary Continence 98 ± 7
p = 0.52
98 ± 7
p = 0.17
98 ± 7
p = 0.47
98 ± 7
p = 0.08
98 ± 7
p = 0.06
5- Social Functioning 93 ± 20
p = 0.55
93 ± 20
p = 0.14
93 ± 20
p = 0.53
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 97 ± 12
Grade 3: 61 ± 45
p= 0.0207
93 ± 20
P= 0.0009
6- Emotional Functioning
and Body Image
84 ± 21
p = 0.84
Usual A.: 89 ± 14
Lower A.: 54 ± 24
p= 0.0042
Grade 0: 96 ± 6
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 72 ± 23
p= 0.0004
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 87 ± 18
Grade 3: 53 ± 28
p= 0.0020
84 ± 21
p= 0.0078
7- Physical symptoms 72 ± 19
p = 0.58
72 ± 19
p = 0.10
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 85 ± 21
Grade 3: 68 ± 16
p= 0.0092
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 73 ± 16
Grade 3: 48 ± 21
p= 0.0129
72 ± 19
p = 0.06
  1. aStudent’s t-test, bANOVA with post hoc pairwise Student’s t-tests