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Table 6 Mean of AQoL-4D utility scores and linear associations by sample characteristics using count method to identify multimorbidity, weighted

From: Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a nationally representative population sample: implications of count versus cluster method for defining multimorbidity on HRQoL

    Model 1 – Present. MM2 + a   Model 2 – Present. MM3 + b  
  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Unadjusted βc Jack-knife standard error Adjusted βd Jack-knife standard error Adjusted βd Jack-knife standard error
Sex
 Male Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Female −0.02 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.002 0.01
Age
 16-25 years. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 26-35 years. −0.04 0.01 −0.05 0.01 −0.06 0.01
 36-45 years. −0.05 0.01 −0.07 0.01 −0.08 0.01
 46-55 years. −0.08 0.02 −0.09 0.01 −0.10 0.01
 56-65 years. −0.09 0.01 −0.04 0.02 −0.06 0.02
 66-75 years. −0.09 0.01 0.02 0.02 −0.01 0.02
 76-85 years. −0.19 0.02 −0.05 0.03 −0.08 0.03
 p for trend <0.05 =0.20 <0.05
BMI (kg/m2)
 Thinness (BMI < 18.5) −0.08 0.05 −0.01 0.01 −0.05 0.03
 Normal (BMI 18.5-24.99) Ref. Ref.
 Overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99) 0.03 0.01 −0.02 0.01 −0.01 0.01
 Obesity (BMI >30.00) −0.01 0.02 −0.02 0.01 −0.02 0.01
 p for trend <0.05 =0.30 =0.30
Labour force status
 Employed Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Unemployed −0.05 0.03 −0.02 0.03 −0.02 0.03
 Not in the labour force −0.13 0.01 −0.11 0.02 −0.10 0.02
Level of exercise
 High Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Moderate −0.003 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.004 0.02
 Low −0.06 0.02 −0.03 0.02 −0.03 0.02
Registered marital status
 Unmarried Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Married 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.01
Smoking status
 Current smoker Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Ex-smoker 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.01
 Never smoked 0.09 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.06 0.01
Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage - Area deciles
 1st decile (lowest) Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2nd decile 0.01 0.02 −0.002 0.02 −0.01 0.02
 3rd decile −0.01 0.02 −0.03 0.02 −0.03 0.02
 4th decile 0.01 0.03 −0.01 0.02 −0.01 0.02
 5th decile 0.03 0.02 0.002 0.02 −0.003 0.02
 6th decile 0.03 0.02 −0.01 0.02 −0.02 0.02
 7th decile 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02
 8th decile 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02
 9th decile 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02
 10th decile (best) 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02
 p for trend <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
Present. MM2 + a −0.21 0.01 −0.18 0.01
Present. MM3 + a −0.26 0.02 −0.23 0.02
Observations 8605 8605  
Weighted R2 0.1219 0.1159  
  1. BMI Body Mass Index
  2. Means are estimated with standard error based on weighting strategy
  3. a MM2 + which means having any 2 or more chronic conditions out of asthma, cancer, stroke, CVD, gout rheumatism or arthritis and diabetes or high sugar levels, MDD and anxiety disorder
  4. b MM3 + which means having any 3 or more chronic conditions out of asthma, cancer, stroke, CVD, gout rheumatism or arthritis and diabetes or high sugar levels, MDD and anxiety disorder
  5. c β from univariate linear regression for the associations with HRQoL
  6. d β from multivariate linear regression model with all other variables in the table adjusted for the associations with HRQoL
  7. Significant coefficients are typed in bold font (p< 0.05)