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Table 5 Mean of AQoL-4D utility scores by sample characteristics using hierarchical cluster to identify multimorbidity, weighted (N = 8820)

From: Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a nationally representative population sample: implications of count versus cluster method for defining multimorbidity on HRQoL

  Cluster-1a Cluster-2b
% Mean Jack-knife standard error % Mean Jack-knife standard error
Sex
 Male 8.6 0.75 0.02 3.7 0.54 0.04
 Female 9.6 0.68 0.01 4.8 0.52 0.02
Age
 Mean of age (yr.) 63.8 0.7 41.7 0.7
 16-25 years. 0.4 0.41 0.40 3.4 0.57 0.03
 26-35 years. 0.6 0.72 0.10 4.6 0.57 0.04
 36-45 years. 3.6 0.75 0.12 6.9 0.54 0.05
 46-55 years. 6.6 0.68 0.03 4.7 0.49 0.05
 56-65 years. 20.3 0.72 0.02 3.4 0.44 0.06
 66-75 years. 28.3 0.75 0.01 2.0 0.53 0.05
 76-85 years. 34.7 0.66 0.02 0.6 0.24 0.13
BMI (kg/m2)
 Thinness (BMI < 18.5) 5.9 0.58 0.17 5.5 0.40 0.10
 Normal (BMI 18.5-24.99) 4.8 0.73 0.02 4.5 0.60 0.03
 Overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99) 9.5 0.73 0.02 3.4 0.47 0.04
 Obesity (BMI >30.00) 17.8 0.68 0.02 4.8 0.48 0.03
Educational attainment
 Has post-school qualification 7.7 0.75 0.01 4.2 0.54 0.03
 No post-school qualification 10.8 0.67 0.02 4.3 0.51 0.03
Labour force
 Employed 4.0 0.76 0.02 3.9 0.60 0.02
 Unemployed 2.0 0.67 0.18 8.2 0.53 0.07
 Not in the labour force 20.2 0.69 0.02 4.7 0.40 0.03
Level of exercise
 High 4.1 0.74 0.04 3.5 0.61 0.04
 Moderate 7.8 0.82 0.03 4.4 0.50 0.05
 Low 10.0 0.69 0.01 4.3 0.53 0.02
Registered marital status
 Unmarried 6.5 0.64 0.02 5.9 0.49 0.02
 Married 11.4 0.75 0.02 2.8 0.59 0.05
Smoking status       
 Current smoker 5.4 0.61 0.05 8.4 0.49 0.03
 Ex-smoker 14.7 0.72 0.02 3.6 0.54 0.05
 Never smoked 7.8 0.74 0.02 2.8 0.56 0.03
Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage - Area deciles
 1st decile (lowest) 11.5 0.59 0.06 5.9 0.44 0.06
 2nd decile 9.7 0.69 0.03 3.1 0.46 0.05
 3rd decile 11.0 0.66 0.03 5.6 0.42 0.06
 4th decile 9.1 0.65 0.04 6.4 0.53 0.09
 5th decile 11.8 0.69 0.03 5.6 0.47 0.06
 6th decile 9.2 0.81 0.05 3.5 0.59 0.04
 7th decile 10.7 0.76 0.03 4.1 0.56 0.05
 8th decile 7.2 0.78 0.03 3.8 0.65 0.08
 9th decile 5.3 0.77 0.04 3.0 0.59 0.07
 10th decile (best) 7.2 0.74 0.05 2.7 0.63 0.05
  1. CVD Heart or circulatory condition, MDD Major depression disorder, BMI Body Mass Index, MM Multimorbidity. Means are estimated with standard error based on the weighting strategy
  2. aCluster-1 = CVD + Arthritis
  3. bCluster-2 = MDD + Anxiety Disorder