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Table 4 Observed and adjusted changes of the QLQ–C30 questionnaire after three and six months

From: Impact of the occurrence of a response shift on the determination of the minimal important difference in a health-related quality of life score over time

QLQ-C30 After 3 months After 6 months
Between T0 and T1 Between T1 and T2
  Observed changes Adjusted changes   Observed changes Adjusted changes
(post-test - pre-test) (post-test - then-test) (post-test - pre-test) (post-test - then-test)
N Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI N Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI
GHS 251      251     
 Little worse 71 −16.31 (16.99) (−20, −13) −12.44 (16.78) (−16, −9) 51 0.49 (15.4) (−3, 4) −7.84 (15.22) (−11, −4)
 No change 43 −2.13 (16.17) (−6, 2) 4.65 (17.85) (0, 9) 50 −1 (16.12) (−5, 3) 7 (14.71) (4, 10)
 Little better 58 0.29 (18.4) (−4, 4) 1.58 (14.93) (−2, 5) 67 7.21 (17.22) (4, 11) 6.97 (16.70) (4, 10)
Physical functioning 255      255     
 Little worse 73 −11.76 (10.99) (−14, −10) −12.28 (12.71) (−15, −10) 53 0.38 (11.43) (−2, 3) −9.18 (12.83) (−12, −6)
 No change 46 −3.99 (10.17) (−7, −1) -2.68 (12.76) (−6, 0) 51 0.72 (6.97) (−1, 2) −1.57 (6.34) (−3, 0)
 Little better 57 −4.53 (12.89) (−7, −2) -0.70 (11.86) (−3, 2) 69 0.85 (13.02) (−2, 3) −3.09 (14.03) (−6, 0)
Role functioning 253      253     
 Little worse 73 −25.57 (21.71) (−30, −21) -18.95 (23.78) (−24, −14) 51 −1.96 (29.18) (−9, 5) −17.65 (29.14) (−24, −11)
 No change 46 −2.90 (19.66) (−8, 2) 0.36 (21.80) (−5, 6) 51 3.92 (15.49) (0, 8) 1.96 (19.05) (−3, 6)
 Little better 55 −9.09 (20.74) (−14, −4) 0.91 (24.72) (−5, 6) 68 5.88 (21.89) (1, 1) 0 (23.92) (−5,5)
Emotional functioning 254      254     
 Little worse 72 3.05 (24.09) (−2, 8) -6.29 (22.02) (−11, −2) 52 −0.53 (20.19) (−5, 4) −6.20 (16.43) (−10, −2)
 No change 44 19.44 (18.31) (15, 24) 10.92 (18.26) (6, 16) 50 −0.78 (15.55) (−4, 3) 8.17 (21.26) (3, 13)
 Little better 59 15.07 (26.33) (9, 21) 3.95 (19.51) (0, 8) 69 1.53 (20.05) (−2, 6) 7.21 (19.13) (3, 11)
Cognitive functioning 254      254     
 Little worse 73 −5.48 (19.46) (−9, −2) -10.96 (18.26) (−15, −7) 52 0.96 (17.9) (−3, 5) −9.62 (19.06) (−14, −5)
 No change 44 0.76 (13.43) (−3, 4) -0.76 (12.43) (−4, 2) 50 2.67 (12.31) (0, 6) 0.33 (15.97) (−3, 4)
 Little better 57 5.26 (21.4) (1, 1) -0.58 (17.24) (−4, 3) 69 3.62 (13.37) (1, 6) 4.59 (17.82) (1, 8)
Social functioning 249      249     
 Little worse 72 −20.37 (21.34) (−25, −16) -15.05 (14.84) (−18, −12) 52 0.64 (24.47) (−5, 6) −10.26 (20.39) (−15, −6)
 No change 42 −3.97 (21.08) (−9, 2) -0.79 (17.25) (−5, 4) 49 4.42 (19.18) (0, 9) −0.34 (12.50) (−3, 3)
 Little better 59 −6.78 (19.6) (−11, −3) -3.11 (18.95) (−7, 1) 68 3.43 (20.68) (−1, 8) 2.21 (21.34) (−2, 7)
Fatigue 254      254     
 Little worse 73 27.32 (21.87) (23, 32) 22.75 (22.38) (18, 27) 53 0.21 (16.34) (−4, 4) 20.13 (24.17) (15, 26)
 No change 46 7.73 (18.42) (3, 12) 5.56 (19.42) (1, 10) 51 −1.53 (19.5) (−6, 3) 2.18 (19.75) (−2, 7)
 Little better 57 7.89 (19.47) (4, 12) 3.31 (17.97) (−1, 7) 68 −7.68 (18.24) (−11, −4) 2.29 (22.92) (−2, 7)
Nausea and vomiting 255      255     
 Little worse 74 8.78 (19.35) (5, 13) 8.33 (15.67) (5, 11) 53 −3.14 (21.7) (−8, 2) 0.94 (17.73) (−3, 5)
 No change 46 −0.72 (12.65) (−4, 2) 0 (8.61) (−2, 2) 51 −2.29 (10.01) (−5, 0) −1.31 (12.40) (−4, 2)
 Little better 57 9.06 (21.38) (4, 14) 3.80 (17.82) (0, 8) 70 −6.67 (23.98) (−11, −2) 0 (13.31) (−3, 3)
Pain 260      260     
 Little worse 75 13.78 (24.87) (9, 19) 9.11 (23.14) (5, 14) 54 1.85 (22.35) (−3, 7) 17.28 (25.89) (11, 23)
 No change 46 3.99 (14.57) (0, 8) 5.43 (17.23) (1, 10) 52 3.21 (14.02) (0, 6) 5.45 (17.06) (1, 9)
 Little better 57 9.94 (20.62) (5, 15) 2.63 (21.08) (−2, 7) 70 2.14 (20.05) (−2, 6) 1.90 (22.97) (−3, 6)
Dyspnea 251      251     
 Little worse 73 8.68 (24.86) (4, 14) 10.96 (23.61) (6, 16) 52 3.85 (26.94) (−2, 10) 7.69 (18.22) (3, 12)
 No change 45 0.74 (19.45) (−4, 6) 0.74 (18.10) (−4, 5) 51 −0.65 (12.45) (−4, 2) 0 (11.55) (−3, 3)
 Little better 55 1.21 (19.21) (−3, 6) 1.82 (16.25) (−2, 5) 67 3.48 (22.57) (−1, 8) 7.46 (23.08) (3, 12)
Insomnia 249      249     
 Little worse 69 5.80 (35.22) (−1, 13) 8.21 (28.24) (3, 14) 52 4.49 (30.98) (−3, 12) 15.38 (24.22) (10, 21)
 No change 46 −10.14 (35.04) (−19, −1) −2.90 (25.17) (−9, 3) 50 −1.33 (21.25) (−6, 4) 2 (28.89) (−5, 9)
 Little better 55 −7.27 (34.95) (−15, 1) 0.61 (25.25) (−5, 6) 67 1 (30.13) (−5, 7) −0.50 (22.09) (−5, 4)
Appetite loss 249      249     
 Little worse 73 10.05 (28.16) (5, 16) 10.96 (27.25) (6, 16) 53 −10.06 (25.8) (−16, −4) 3.77 (20.32) (−1, 8)
 No change 46 −2.90 (20.88) (−8, 2) 1.45 (17.15) (−3, 6) 50 −2.67 (9.13) (−5, −1) −2 (12.44) (−5, 1)
 Little better 54 1.85 (22.82) (−3, 7) 3.70 (15.41) (0, 7) 68 −2.45 (20.21) (−7, 2) −0.49 (14.67) (−3, 2)
Constipation 247      247     
 Little worse 68 15.20 (30.16) (9, 21) 10.29 (27.77) (5, 16) 48 −1.39 (24.75) (−7, 5) 2.78 (21.56) (−2, 8)
 No change 42 0 (19.48) (−5, 5) 2.38 (18.61) (−2, 7) 48 −3.47 (12.38) (−6, 0) −1.39 (9.62) (−4, 1)
 Little better 58 0 (26.49) (−6, 6) 0 (16.52) (−4, 4) 70 −2.86 (30.95) (−9, 3) 0 (26.62) (−5, 5)
Diarrhea 248      248     
 Little worse 71 0 (21.08) (−4, 4) 3.29 (18.07) (0, 6) 48 0.69 (14.57) (−3, 4) 4.17 (13.09) (1, 7)
 No change 43 −2.33 (15.25) (−6, 2) -0.78 (11.47) (−4, 2) 48 −1.39 (9.62) (−4, 1) −2.08 (10.67) (−5, 0)
 Little better 56 −0.6 (21.55) (−5, 4) 2.38 (20.94) (−2, 7) 69 −1.93 (17.97) (−6, 2) −1.93 (20.52) (−6, 2)
Financial difficulties 240      240     
 Little worse 69 9.66 (22.94) (5, 14) 8.21 (22.44) (4, 13) 49 −3.40 (20.69) (−8, 2) 4.76 (21.52) (0, 1)
 No change 41 4.07 (13.32) (1, 8) 2.44 (8.79) (0, 5) 47 0 (0) (NA) −0.71 (4.86) (−2, 0)
 Little better 58 1.15 (22.48) (−4, 6) 1.72 (15.82) (−2, 5) 66 1.52 (9.12) (0, 3) 0.51 (16) (−3, 4)
  1. GHS global health status, Observed changes Post-test – Pre-test; adjusted changes: Post-test – Then-test, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval