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Table 3 ITQOL scores across infant feeding regimen groups at enrollment (study day 1) and study day 48a

From: Infant feeding and health-related quality of life in healthy Chinese infants: results from a prospective, observational cohort study

  Study formula-fed only (n = 140) Breastfed only (n = 136) Mixed-fed (breastfed and study formula-fed) (n = 151) P-valueb
Infant-focused concepts     
 Overall Health     
  Day 1 77.9 ± 19.2 80.0 ± 15.9 78.4 ± 17.4 0.932
  Day 48 79.4 ± 16.4 78.6 ± 14.5 79.3 ± 17.6 0.623
 Physical Abilities     
  Day 1 94.3 ± 6.3 86.4 ± 15.6 80.6 ± 28.3 0.878
  Day 48 94.1 ± 6.3 84.7 ± 18.6 75.9 ± 29.8 0.410
 Growth and Development     
  Day 1 81.4 ± 15.2 84.3 ± 14.1 82.3 ± 14.6 0.405
  Day 48 84.9 ± 13.9 84.5 ± 14.6 83.6 ± 15.3 0.845
 Bodily Pain/Discomfort     
  Day 1 92.9 ± 12.6 93.6 ± 11.7 92.9 ± 12.4 0.877
  Day 48 94.1 ± 11.4 94.9 ± 8.8 94.3 ± 9.8 0.920
 Temperament and Moods     
  Day 1 71.2 ± 8.0 73.8 ± 9.5 72.2 ± 9.1 0.127
  Day 48 74.5 ± 9.2 1 77.7 ± 8.4 2 77.0 ± 8.3 2 0.0057
 General Health Perceptions     
  Day 1 81.3 ± 11.4 84.2 ± 10.2 83.3 ± 10.5 0.172
  Day 48 81.1 ± 11.7 1 84.7 ± 11.8 2 85.5 ± 9.3 2 0.0009
Parent-focused concepts     
 Parent Impact – Emotional     
  Day 1 87.6 ± 17.1 89.4 ± 17.0 87.0 ± 15.4 0.324
  Day 48 88.0 ± 15.7 1 91.9 ± 12.8 2 90.0 ± 10.8 1,2 0.009
 Parent Impact – Time     
  Day 1 83.3 ± 21.4 88.2 ± 15.4 88.1 ± 13.3 0.456
  Day 48 85.9 ± 18.7 1 90.0 ± 14.2 2 90.9 ± 10.8 2 0.0053
 Family Cohesion     
  Day 1 79.9 ± 19.5 79.5 ± 18.6 79.3 ± 18.0 0.855
  Day 48 81.0 ± 16.2 79.0 ± 18.4 80.6 ± 19.1 0.649
  1. aData presented as unadjusted mean ± standard deviation
  2. bMain effects p-value from non-parametric ANCOVA (parent Mental Component Summary [MCS] score from the SF-12v2 included as a covariate)
  3. 1,2Values that do not share the same superscript are significantly different (all pairwise p < 0.01)