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Table 1 General characteristics of the study populations at the baseline

From: Does relationship satisfaction and financial aid from offspring influence the quality of life of older parents?: a longitudinal study based on findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging, 2006–2012

Variables Baseline
Subject Quality of life
N % Mean ± S.D P-value
Relationship satisfaction with offspring       <.0001
 Highly unsatisfied 776 23.7 38.63 ± 20.06  
 Slightly unsatisfied 325 9.9 53.78 ± 14.93  
 Slightly satisfied 653 20.0 59.85 ± 15.69  
 Highly satisfied 1,520 46.4 68.86 ± 17.88  
Regular financial aid from offspring       <.0001
 Yes 1,443 44.1 60.90 ± 19.73  
 No 1,831 55.9 56.43 ± 22.55  
Sex       <.0001
 Male 1,329 40.6 61.30 ± 20.25  
 Female 1,945 59.4 56.42 ± 22.04  
Age       0.0044
 65-69 1,471 44.9 60.03 ± 20.62  
 70-79 1,393 42.6 57.49 ± 22.03  
 ≥ 80 410 12.5 55.66 ± 22.08  
Marital status       0.6635
 Married 2,092 63.9 60.79 ± 20.22  
 Single 1,182 36.1 54.16 ± 22.91  
Education level       <.0001
 More than high school 553 16.9 66.58 ± 19.62  
 Less than middle school 1,454 44.4 59.76 ± 20.53  
 Uneducated 1,267 38.7 53.27 ± 21.95  
Household income       <.0001
 Q4 (High) 793 24.2 65.08 ± 17.26  
 Q3 902 27.6 58.65 ± 20.15  
 Q2 828 25.3 53.62 ± 22.11  
 Q1 (Low) 751 22.9 56.31 ± 24.34  
Wealth       <.0001
 Q4 (High) 845 25.8 67.04 ± 17.90  
 Q3 863 26.4 63.40 ± 17.91  
 Q2 805 24.6 54.60 ± 20.93  
 Q1 (Low) 761 23.2 47.16 ± 23.41  
Employment status       0.0156
 Employed 652 19.9 61.78 ± 19.87  
 Unemployed 2,622 80.1 57.59 ± 21.76  
Living with offspring       0.1164
 Yes 1,320 40.3 58.23 ± 20.88  
 No 1,954 59.7 58.51 ± 21.85  
Smoking       0.2098
 No 2,787 85.1 58.75 ± 21.51  
 Yes 487 14.9 56.37 ± 21.09  
Alcohol intake       0.0573
 No 1,247 38.1 59.39 ± 20.28  
 Yes 2,027 61.9 57.79 ± 22.14  
Perceived health status       <.0001
 Healthy 1,824 55.7 64.63 ± 18.34  
 Unhealthy 1,450 44.3 50.56 ± 22.52  
Limits on activities of daily living       0.0003
 No 1,758 53.7 63.95 ± 18.53  
 Yes 1,516 46.3 51.96 ± 22.80  
Depressive symptoms       <.0001
 No 1,771 54.1 64.60 ± 19.11  
 Yes 1,503 45.9 51.10 ± 21.79  
Frequency of contact with a neighbor       <.0001
 None 318 9.7 48.30 ± 24.18  
 Meet once a month or less 586 17.9 56.83 ± 20.58  
 Meet once a month or more 2,370 72.4 60.14 ± 20.89  
Number of chronic disease       0.0100
 None 1,165 35.6 61.54 ± 19.74  
 1 1,791 54.7 57.87 ± 21.83  
 2+ 318 9.7 49.90 ± 22.90  
Total 3,274 100 58.40 ± 16.03