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Table 6 Factors associated with having difficulty in accessing health services and traditional medical care services

From: Health status and health service utilization in remote and mountainous areas in Vietnam

Factors Difficulty in general health services access Difficulty in traditional medicine and services access
All Kinh Muong All Kinh Muong
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Age (years)    1.1* (1.0; 1.1)      1.1 (1.0; 1.2)   
Male vs. Female    0.3 (0.1; 1.4) 3.1* (1.0; 10.2)       
Ethnic: Kinh vs Muong        4.3** (1.1; 16.3)     
Education (Elementary - ref)             
 Secondary 0.5 (0.2; 1.2)           
 College and above 2.1 (0.7; 6.5) 0.2 (0.0; 1.7) 10.6*** (2.7; 41.5) 5.0** (1.5; 17.4)     
Expenditure (Lowest - ref)             
 High 0.5 (0.2; 1.4)          3.1* (0.8; 11.7)
 Highest 5.8*** (1.6; 20.7)          8.4* (1.0; 71.6)
Household’s income (Lowest - ref)             
 Low 2.1 (0.8; 5.7) 4.3 (0.5; 36.5)    4.5** (1.2; 16.4)     
 Middle    0.1* (0.0; 1.2)         
 Highest 0.4 (0.1; 1.5)           
Having problems in (Yes vs. No)             
 Daily activities            5.5** (1.1; 26.6)
 Pain or Discomfort        5.4*** (1.7; 17.5)    3.9* (1.0; 15.6)
 Anxiety or Depression        0.1*** (0.0; 0.6)    0.1** (0.0; 0.8)
# health problems (None - ref)             
 1 health issue 6.0* (1.0; 37.0) 17.6** (1.1; 294.0)        2.4 (0.7; 8.9)
 2 health issues 3.9 (0.7; 22.3) 18.5** (1.2; 285.1)         
Distance (<1 km – ref)             
 >2 km 3.6*** (1.5; 8.3) 12.8*** (2.1; 79.2) 2.6 (0.8; 8.3)       
Perceived quality of commune health services             
 Very good - ref             
 Good 3.0 (0.8; 12.1)        0.1* (0.0; 1.0)   
 Moderate 6.0** (1.0; 34.4)           
Perceived of TM service quality (Very good – ref)             
 Good        6.1** (1.0; 36.7)     
Perceived of effectiveness of TM (Very good - ref)             
 Good        0.4* (0.1; 1.1)    1.2** (1.0; 1.5)
 Moderate 0.3* (0.1; 1.1) 0.2 (0.0; 1.8)         
Satisfaction with (Yes vs. No)             
 Availability of health services 0.2*** (0.1; 0.7)    0.3 (0.1; 1.5)      0.1** (0.0; 0.7)
 Commune general health care services            3.4 (0.7; 17.3)
 Commune traditional health care services      0.1** (0.0; 0.6)       
 Health information and guidance        6.9** (1.1; 42.5)     
 Convenience of service use      3.3* (0.8; 13.0)       
 Convenience of integrating western and traditional health services 0.5 (0.2; 1.3)           
 Inter-professional collaborations      6.4 (0.7; 61.9)       
 Capacity of health workers      0.2* (0.0; 1.4)       
 Responsiveness of health workers        0.1** (0.0; 0.8)     
  1. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1; 95 % CI in parentheses