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Table 1 Approaches studied to value quality of life

From: Assessing quality of life in a clinical study on heart rehabilitation patients: how well do value sets based on given or experienced health states reflect patients’ valuations?

Valuation Patients’ VAS (reference) GHS-TTO Germany EHS-VAS Germany
Who values? Patient X   
Population (value set)   X X
What is being valued? Experienced health state X   X
Hypothetical health state   X  
How is it valued? Directly (VAS) X   X
Choice-based (TTO)   X  
Scale adjustment None X   X
Anchoring for death   X  
Endpoint when multiplied by time QALYs (utilities)   X  
Quality-adjusted survival X   X
  1. Legend: VAS visual analog scale, GHS given health states, EHS experienced health states, TTO time-trade-off method, GHS-TTO Germany and EHS-VAS Germany represent two national value sets [6, 19]