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Table 3 Mean OPAQ-PF total scores at baseline, change scores, and effect sizes at weeks 2 (no recent fracture patients and 12 (recent fracture patients) by patient global ratings of change at weeks 2 and 12

From: Interpreting change from patient reported outcome (PRO) endpoints: patient global ratings of concept versus patient global ratings of change, a case study among osteoporosis patients

  No recent fracture patients (N = 105) Recent fracture patients (N = 34)
Rating of change   Baseline 2 weeks Effect sizea for OPAQ-PF change   Baseline 12 weeks Effect sizea for OPAQ-PF change
N OPAQ-PF total score
mean (SD)
OPAQ-PF mean change (SD) N OPAQ-PF total score
mean (SD)
OPAQ-PF mean change (SD)
Mobility
 Much better 4 91.3 (7.96) −0.67 (4.93) −0.08 12 70.4 (25.8) 19.9 (27.9) 0.77
 Moderately better 5 89.6 (11.2) −4.53 (5.47) −0.40 6 42.7 (20.4) 29.1 (19.4) 1.43
 A little better 4 89.7 (9.70) −8.00 (13.5) −0.82 3 61.3 (26.0) −1.78 (47.2) −0.07
 No change 79 82.5 (22.1) −0.38 (9.23) −0.02 8 51.3 (27.5) 6.83 (10.7) 0.25
 A little worse 10 77.3 (14.0) −10.7 (14.4) −0.76 3 64.9 (21.6) −4.89 (16.0) −0.23
 Moderately worse 2 38.7 (17.0) −1.33 (11.3) −0.08 2 56.0 (3.8) 12.7 (23.6) 3.34
 Much worse 1 22.7 (−) −14.7 (−) - - - - -
  K-W test p-value 0.148     0.24  
  Linear trend p-value
(departures from linear trend)
0.33 (0.033)     0.086 (0.49)  
  rs
(p-value)
−0.082 (0.405)     0.322 (0.064)  
Physical Positions
 Much better 3 92.0 (9.61) 1.33 (3.53) 0.14 12 70.6 (25.6) 21.9 (28.7) 0.86
 Moderately better 3 89.8 (14.4) −5.78 (6.84) −0.40 3 38.2 (6.30) 38.7 (16.2) 6.14
 A little better 6 91.6 (6.29) −8.44 (8.95) −1.34 4 39.3 (17.7) 19.7 (11.4) 1.11
 No change 81 82.7 (21.6) −0.87 (9.58) −0.04 8 52.5 (28.5) 8.67 (8.58) 0.30
 A little worse 8 77.3 (12.6) −7.83 (16.0) −0.62 7 66.3 (16.6) −7.62 (26.2) −0.46
 Moderately worse 3 40.9 (12.6) 0 (8.33) 0.0 - - - -
 Much worse 1 22.7 (−) −14.7 (−) - - - - -
  K-W test p-value 0.224     0.033  
  Linear trend p-value
(departures from linear trend)
0.631 (0.131)     0.007 (0.310)  
  rs
(p-value)
0.042 (0.673)     0.447 (0.008)  
Transfersb
 Much better 3 89.3 (14.1) −2.67 (9.61) −0.19 12 65.1 (26.3) 24.6 (29.2) 0.94
 Moderately better 3 90.7 (8.74) −3.56 (3.36) −0.41 3 42.2 (5.39) 33.8 (7.81) 6.27
 A little better 5 94.7 (4.62) −8.80 (9.96) −1.90 4 50.3 (30.6) 1.33 (39.0) 0.04
 No change 88 82.2 (21.3) −0.87 (9.31) −0.04 11 61.9 (26.9) 6.30 (14.4) 0.10
 A little worse 3 70.7 (7.42) −18.2 (23.3) −2.45 2 59.3 (27.3) 3.33 (10.4) 0.12
 Moderately worse 2 38.7 (17.0) −1.33 (11.3) −0.08 1 58.7 −4.0 -
 Much worse 1 22.7 (−) 14.7 (−) - - - - -
  K-W test p-value 0.304     0.133  
  Linear trend p-value
(departures from linear trend)
0.655 (0.026)     0.030 (0.740)  
  rs
(p-value)
0.028 (0.777)     0.426 (0.013)  
  1. Data are shown for patients with data at each two assessments
  2. aCohen’s d effect size = mean change / baseline SD
  3. b N = 33 (recent fracture)