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Table 2 Predictive typology of subjective quality of life among participants with severe mental disorders: A longitudinal two-step cluster analysis

From: Predictive typology of subjective quality of life among participants with severe mental disorders after a five-year follow-up: a longitudinal two-step cluster analysis

   Classes
   1 2 3 4 Combined
   n = 49 (24.0) n = 45 (22.1) n = 48 (23.5) n = 62 (30.4) n = 204 (100)
Age categories at T0 [n(%)] <40 yr. 6 (14.0) 14 (32.6) 10 (23.3) 13 (30.2) 43 (100.0)
40–49 yr. 12 (18.2) 19 (28.8) 26 (39.4) 9 (13.6) 66 (100.0)
50 yr. and over 31 (32.6) 12 (12.6) 12 (12.6) 40 (42.1) 95 (100.0)
Gender at T0 [n(%)] Females 33 (33.7) 29 (29.6) 15 (15.3) 21 (21.4) 98 (100.0)
Males 16 (15.1) 16 (15.1) 33 (31.1) 41 (38.7) 106 (100.0)
Education at T0 [n(%)] Secondary school or less 11 (8.9) 33 (26.8) 17 (13.8) 62 (50.4) 123 (100.0)
College or over 38 (46.9) 12 (14.8) 31 (38.3) 0 (0.0) 81 (100.0)
Sources of income at T0 [n(%)] Welfare 12 (9.3) 25 (19.4) 38 (29.5) 54 (41.9) 129 (100.0)
Other 37 (49.3) 20 (26.7) 10 (13.3) 8 (10.7) 75 (100.0)
Civil status at T0 [n(%)] Non-single 19 (63.3) 7 (23.3) 4 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 30 (100.0)
Single 30 (17.2) 38 (21.8) 44 (25.3) 62 (35.6) 174 (100.0)
Housing status at T0 [n(%)] Independent apartment 34 (28.1) 45 (37.2) 28 (23.1) 14 (11.6) 121 (100.0)
Supervised apartments or other types of supervised housing 15 (18.1) 0 (0.0) 20 (24.1) 48 (57.8) 83 (100.0)
Mental disorders at T0 First diagnosis (Severe mental disorders)
Mood disorders [n(%)] 42 (48.8) 28 (32.6) 5 (5.8) 11 (12.8) 86 (100.0)
Psychotic disordersa [n(%)] 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 48 (48) 52 (52.0) 100 (100.0)
Second diagnosis      
Anxiety disorders [n(%)] 13 (52.0) 6 (24.0) 3 (12) 3 (12.0) 25 (100.0)
Personality disorders [n(%)] 5 (8.6) 32 (55.2) 3 (5.2) 18 (31.0) 58 (100.0)
Addictionb [mean (SD)] 6.7 (5.1) 10.9 (11.0) 8.9 (6.7) 7.7 (5.4) 8.5 (7.3)
Severity of needsc at T0 [mean (SD)]   40.7 (29.4) 61.4 (35.0) 43.2 (26.2) 32.1 (20.9) 43.3 (29.5)
Help from servicesc at T0 [mean (SD)]   29.1 (18.0) 33 (19.7) 37 (18) 40.3 (25.6) 35.2 (21.3)
ACSS-MHd score at T0 [mean (SD)]   116.2 (19.2) 123.4 (10.4) 124 (11.1) 124.4 (9.3) 122.1 (13.3)
Subjective quality of life (SLDS) score at T2 [mean (SD)] 99.1 (18.9) 89.9 (20.0) 97.9 (14.6) 106.7 (16.2) 99.1 (18.3)
  1. aPsychotic disorders = schizophrenia + schizophrenia spectrum + delusion; bAddiction = AUDIT + DAST-20; c: Montreal Assessment of Needs Questionnaire (MANQ) score; d = Alberta Continuity of Services Scale for Mental Health
  2. Class 1: “Highly functional older females having mood and anxiety disorders receiving little help from services and with little continuity of access to services but with a mean SQOL”
  3. Class 2: "Young females with serious needs and co-occurring mental and addiction disorders living in independent apartments and with a very low SQOL”
  4. Class 3: “Middle-aged males, well-educated, but poor and single with psychotic disorders and a mean SQOL”
  5. Class 4: “Older, poorly educated single males living in supervised apartments or in other types of supervised housing, with psychotic disorders but few serious needs, receiving a large amount of help from services and with a very high SQOL”