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Table 5 Correlations among measures, German and US current and former smokers

From: Evaluation of smoking-specific and generic quality of life measures in current and former smokers in Germany and the United States

Sample and measure Scoringa Current smoking statusb CPD Smoking-specific symptoms Smoking impact PCS MCS
German Sample (N = 179)        
Biomarkers        
4-ABP   0.720** 0.817** 0.439** 0.171* 0.013 0.099
CEMA   0.681** 0.773** 0.375** 0.179* −0.006 0.064
4-ABP-Hb   0.712** 0.826** 0.538** 0.189* −0.062 0.137
CEVal   0.659** 0.793** 0.500** 0.221** −0.054 −0.046
Survey Measures        
Smoking Symptoms 0.476** 0.537**     
Smoking Impact 0.354** 0.251** 0.372**    
SF-36 PCS + 0.060 0.005 −0.091 −0.099   
SF-36 MCS + 0.104 0.107 −0.154* −0.298** −0.041  
US Sample (N = 259)        
Survey Measures        
Smoking Symptoms 0.491** 0.527**     
Smoking Impact 0.465** 0.364** 0.550**    
SF-36 PCS + −0.163** −0.207** −0.162** −0.097   
SF-36 MCS + −0.098 −0.154* −0.418** −0.371** -0.068  
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01
  2. aNegative (−) indicates higher score equals worse health; positive (+) indicates higher score equals better health
  3. b1 = current smoker; 0 = former smoker
  4. Note: 4-ABP = 4-aminobiphenyl; CEMA = 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid; 4-ABP-Hb = 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct; CEVal = 2-cyanoethylvaline hemoglobin