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Table 3 The results of the dependent and independent Student’s t-test in the breast cancer (n = 162) and control groups (n = 210) at baseline (T1) and at the 6-month follow-up (T 2)

From: Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design

Variables Range BC 1 group mean (SD) Differences within BC group 3 C 2 group mean (SD) Differences within C group 3 Differences between groups 4 at T1 Differences between groups 4 at T2
   T1 T2 (p value) T1 T2 (p value) (p value) (p value)
EORTCQLQ-C30:          
Global quality of life 0-100 58.1(20.1) 68.7 (18.5) .000 70.1 (21.6) 72.4 (18.0) .098 .000 .053
Functional scales:          
Physical 0-100 93.8 (9.6) 77.4 (16.3) .000 85.5 (12.6) 85.2 (12.7) .713 .000 .000
Role 0-100 94.6 (12.3) 81.9 (19.3) .000 90.0 (16.4) 88.2 (16.8) .160 .002 .001
Emotional 0-100 55.2 (27.4) 65.3 (23.8) .000 72.5 (22.8) 74.0 (21.6) .335 .000 .000
Cognitive 0-100 87.9 (15.1) 83.3 (18.2) .009 82.5 (20.6) 84.0 (19.2) .261 .004 .716
Social 0-100 82.2 (21.3) 74.8 (24.6) .001 93.7 (14.5) 93.3 (15.0) .745 .000 .000
Symptom scales:          
Fatigue 0-100 18.3 (18.4) 31.6 (23.3) .000 21.0 (16.4) 22.5 (19.3) .234 .130 .000
Nausea/vomiting 0-100 4.2 (9.3) 7.4 (16.2) .024 3.5 (9.1) 3.3 (9.7) .840 .452 .005
Pain 0-100 15.1 (17.4) 25.0 (21.9) .000 15.9 (19.9) 17.2 (19.9) .342 .699 .000
Dyspnea 0-100 8.4 (17.1) 11.3 (17.9) .090 8.1 (16.7) 9.4 (18.8) .326 .848 .311
Insomnia 0-100 22.0 (28.3) 26.5 (29.7) .076 18.1 (24.6) 18.6 (24.4) .788 .162 .006
Appetite loss 0-100 13.8 (23.1) 13.7 (24.0) .990 6.8 (15.0) 7.6 (16.1) .523 .001 .005
Constipation 0-100 8.2 (19.0) 15.2 (25.5) .001 12.8 (21.8) 12.4 (21.3) .761 .030 .253
Diarrhea 0-100 3.3 (11.3) 3.5 (10.9) .862 3.3 (10.0) 4.8 (14.1) .217 .970 .347
Financial difficulties 0-100 17.7 (29.0) 37.9 (34.3) .000 10.3 (22.7) 8.7 (19.4) .309 .008 .000
Sense of Coherence 13-91 67.2 (11.3) 63.1 (13.4) .000 61.9 (14.0) 62.9 (13.4) .171 .000 .870
Spiritual Perspective Scale 10-60 54.5 (4.9) 51.5 (6.5) .000 49.0 (7.5) 49.2 (6.9) .424 .000 .001
Religious Coping (+) 7-28 24.1 (4.2) 22.8 (4.3) .000 22.8 (4.3) 22.9 (4.2) .684 .004 .806
Religious Coping (−) 7-28 11.5 (4.7) 12.0 (4.9) .135 12.3 (4.7) 12.0 (4.2) .322 .072 .927
  1. 1BC: breast cancer; 2C: Control, 3Paired t-test; 4Independent Student’s t-test.
  2. Bold values show statistical significant differences within and between the groups.