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Table 2 Underlying structures of the PAID and PAID-5 based on previous psychometric studies including patients with type 2 diabetes

From: Measurement of diabetes-related emotional distress using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale: psychometric evaluations show that the short form is better than the full form

Form/authors Structure Scale/subscales and their names (item numbers)
Full form (PAID)   
Welch et al. [8] One factor One-factor scale (all 20 items)
Huang et al. [16] One factor One-factor scale (all 20 items)
Miller et al. [13] Two factors Subscale 1: Lack of confidence (1, 2, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18)
   Subscale 2: Negative emotional consequences (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19, 20)
Huis In ‘t Veld et al. [15] Two factors Subscale 1: Diabetes distress (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19)
   Subscale 2: Support-related issues (15, 16, 17, 18, 20)
Papathanasiou et al. [12] Three factors Subscale 1: Diabetes-related emotional problems (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20)
   Subscale 2: Food-related problems (4, 5, 11)
   Subscale 3: Social-support-related problems (17, 18)
Snoek et al. [9] Four factors Subscale 1: Diabetes-related emotional problems ( 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20)
   Subscale 2: Treatment-related problems (1, 2, 15)
   Subscale 3: Food-related problems (4, 5, 11)
   Subscale 4: Social-support-related problems (17, 18)
Graue et al. [19] Lack of empirical support  
Short form (PAID-5)   
McGuire et al. [21] One factor One-factor scale (3, 6, 12, 16, 19)