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Table 4 Psychometric properties of patient-reported outcome measures in patients with SLE

From: Patient-reported outcome measures for systemic lupus erythematosus clinical trials: a review of content validity, face validity and psychometric performance

Instrument Psychometrically validated in a SLE population Reliability Validity Ability to detect change
Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) Test-retest (ICC) Construct validity Known groups validity Concurrent validity
SLAQ [47],[78] (0.87) [47] - [47],[50] - [78] [47]
LupusQoL [50] (>0.70) [50] (0.72-0.93) [50] [50] [50] [50] -
LupusPRO [52],[76] (0.72-0.94) [52] (>0.70, except for 3 domains) [52] ✗ (High floor effects) [52] - [52],[76] [52] -
L-QoL [40] (0.92) [40] (0.92) [40] - [40] [40] -
SLEQOL [55] (0.95) [55] (0.83) [55] ✗ (High floor effects) [55] - Partial [55] Partial [55]
SF-36v2 Partial (>0.70) [80],[81] Partial[80],[81] Partial[80],[81] Partial[80],[81] Partial[80],[81]. ✗ (for SLE) [55],[60]Partial[80]
EQ-5D [75] - EQ-5D Index: Partial (0.89) [75] EQ-5D VAS: Partial (0.77) [75] ✗ [82] [76] [76] [76]
FACIT-Fatigue [77] (>0.95) [77] Partial (0.95) [83] - [77] [77] [77]
MFI Partial (0-68-0.89) [84] - Partial[84],[85] I Partial[84],[86] Partial[84] Partial[87]
MAF Partial (0.93) [68] Partial (0.87) [88] Partial[89] Partial[90] Partial[68] Partial[91]
MPQ Partial (α not provided) [69] Partial (r= > 0.70) [69],[92] - - Partial[93] Partial[94]
BPI-SF Partial (0.80-0.92) [95] Partial (0.83-0.88) [96] Partial[95],[97],[98] Partial[95],[99] Partial[99] Partial[100],[101]
BDI Partial (0.81) [102] Partial (0.93) [102] Partial[102],[103] Partial[102],[103] Partial[102] -
HADS Partial (0.83, Anxiety sub-scale; 0.82, Depression sub-scale) [104] Partial (0.84-0.85 for both sub-scales) [105] Partial[73],[104] Partial[105] Partial[104],[106] Partial[105]
WPAI:Lupus - Partial (Pearson’s: 0.71-0.75) [74] - Partial[107] Partial[108] Partial[107]
  1. SLAQ – Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire, SF-36v2 – Short Form [36] Health Survey, EQ-5D – EuroQol 5-Dimensions, FACIT-Fatigue - Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy, MFI – Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, MAF – Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, MGQ – McGill Pain Scale, BPI – Brief Pain Inventory, BDI – Beck Depression Inventory, HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, WPAI:Lupus – Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: Lupus.
  2. , evidence of psychometric acceptability in SLE population; Partial, evidence of psychometric acceptability in non-SLE population; ✗, evidence does not meet psychometrical acceptability threshold; −, no evidence available.