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Table 4 Showing Pearson correlation coefficients calculated with pair-wise exclusion between SOC, BDI, BAI and SDQ-em and self-assessed and physiological health-related parameters in the non-clinical (N = 66) and clinical sample (N = 73).

From: Low Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a mirror of general anxiety and persistent depressive symptoms in adolescent girls - a cross-sectional study of a clinical and a non-clinical cohort

Non-clinical sample Clinical sample
Parameter N Mean (SD) SOC N = 55 BDI N = 66 BAI N = 66 SDQ-em N = 66 N Mean (SD) SOC N = 73 BDI N = 67 BAI N = 70 SDQ-em N = 73
SOC 55 137 (27)      73 96 (20.5) 97    
Psychiatric symptoms 1             
Depressive symptoms BDI 66 9.8 (8.4)) -0.86*** - 0.80*** 0.73 *** 67 25.1(12.0) -0.74*** - 0.67*** 0.44***
Anxiety symptoms BAI 66 13.3 (9.7) -0.78*** 0.79*** - 0.73*** 70 22.8(11.0) -0.70*** 0.67*** - 0.50***
Emotional problems SDQ-em 66 3.7 (2.4) -0.73*** 0.73*** 0.73*** - 73 3.7 (2.3) -0.53*** 0.44*** 0.50*** -
Hyperactivity SDQ-hy 66 3.7(2.6) -0.62** 0.64** 0.66** 0.53** 73 3.7(2.5) -0.52*** 0.51*** 0.51*** 0.37**
Conduct problems SDQ-co 66 1.3(1.3) -0.52** 0.58** 0.59** 0.53** 73 1.3(1.3) -0.40* 0.42*** 0.46*** 0.21
Peer problems SDQ-pp 66 1.5(1.8) -0.62** 0.53** 0.57** 0.38* 73 1.5 (1.8) -0.33** 0.36** 0.17 0.21
Psychosomatic symptoms 1             
Headache 66 2.5(0.9) -0.42** 0.40** 0.50** 0.59** 70 3.1 (1.0) -0.26* 0.26* 0.40** 0.37**
Backache 66 2.6 (1.0) -0.54** 0.51** 0.54** 0.48** 70 3.1 (1.2) -0.25* 0.19 0.27* 0.39**
Stomach problems 65 2.3 (0.8) -0.39** 0.25* 0.33* 0.28* 70 3.5 (1.2) -0.19 0.18 0.25* 0.23
Sleep problems 66 2.6 (1.0) -0.45* 0.54** 0.61** 0.53** 70 2.6 (1.2) -0.25* 0.51** 0.30* 0.11
Dizziness 66 1.9(0.9) -0.26 0.32** 0.41** 0.09 70 2.0 (0.8) -0.43** 0.34** 0.46** 0.31**
Self-perceived stress             
In relation to total life situation 64 2.6 (0.6) 0.41** -0.56** -0.50** -0.33* 67 2.0 (0.8) 0.19 -0.23 -0.06 -0.13
In relation to school work 66 1.6 (0.6) 0.51**' -0.42** -0.32** -0.40** 70 1.4 (0.6) 0.17 -0.14 -0.08 -0.11
In relation to parent's situation 66 2.2 (0.6) 0.26 -0.34** -0.24* -0.18* 66 1.9 (0.8) 0.12 -0.18 -0.28* -0.06
Sense of support/satisfaction 1             
By teachers 66 1.6 (0.6) 0.55** -0.47** 0.46** -0.42** 70 2.0 (0.6) 0.55** -0.37** -0.39** -0.22
By parents 66 1.2 (0.7) 0.43** -0.38** 0.40** -0.38** 70 1.4 (0.7) 0.21 -0.20 -0.22 -0.35**
Likes to be in school 66 1.7 (0.7) 0.48** -0.47** 0.40** -0.33* 66 2.3 (0.6) 0.11 -0.08 -0.12 0.03
Likes to be with friends 66 1.3 (0.5) 0.23 0.24 0.14 0.20 66 1.9 (0.7) 0.00 -0.01 0.10 0.13
Health behaviours 1             
Physical activity 66 3.5(1.1) 0.11 -0.04 0.09 -0.07 70 3.0(1.3) 0.24* -0.31* -0.29* -0.18
Skips breakfast 66 2.4(1,2) -0.32* 0.22 0.29* 0.30* 70 3.0(1.3) -0.24 0.30* 0.20 0.04
TV hours 62 4.7 (2.7) -0.12 0.11 0.15 0.26* 69 4.3(2.9) 0.22 -0.17 -0.13 -0.16
Daily smoking 61 1.8 (1.3) -0.34* 0.17 0.20 0.24* 69 2.1(1.3) -0.18 0.04 0.20 0.08
Objective health parameters 2             
Body Mass Index 66 22.2(3.6) -0.08 0.04 0.04 0.02 67 21.3 (3,9) -0.04 -0.01 -0.10 0.06
P-glucose 66 5.5 (0.7) -0.07 0.17 -0.04 0.01 69 6.7 (2.2) 0.07 -0.04 0.10 -0.01
Saliva cortisol AUC-b 46 2.1 (0.3) -0.32* 0.27 0.21 0.14 35 1.7 (0.7) -0.30 0.18 0.04 0.22
Blood pressure systolic 65 111 (9.7) 0.03 0.17 0.14 0.00 69 109 (16.6) -0.15 0.01 -0.01 0.20
Blood pressure diastolic 65 67 (7.5) 0.07 -0.06 -0.08 -0.15 68 68 (9.2) 0.06 -0.01 -0.02 0.09
HRV high frequency (HF) 53 5.9 (0.83) 0.32* -0.19 -0.16 -0.15 60 5.5 (0.86) -0.09 0.03 -0.05 0.09
HRV low frequency (LF) 53 5.9 (0.87) 0.15 -0.06 -0.06 -0.06 60 5.5 (0.86) -0.04 0.01 -0.04 0.06
HRV st d of inter-beat int (SDNN) 53 4.1 (0.32) 0.20 -0.14 -0.07 -0.08 60 3.88 (0.34) -0.13 0.04 0.01 0.11
HRV HF adjusted for HR 42 5.9 (0.84) 0.41** -0.32* -0.30 -0.43** 49 5.4 (0.88) -0.05 0.06 0.03 0.17
HRV LF adjusted for HR 42 6.0 (0.90) 0.17 -0.20 -0.13 -0.28 49 5.5 (0.91) 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.08
HRV SDNN adjusted for HR 42 4.1 (0.33) 0.28 -0.35* -0.28 0.44** 49 3.88 (0.35) -0.09 0.08 0.12 0.17
Socio-demographic factors 1             
Parent unemployment 65 25% -0.15 0.15 0.22 0.25* 70 31% 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.14
Parent non Swedish ethnicity 66 24% -0.02 0.08 0.14 0.14 70 6% 0.15 0.00 -0.05 -0.29*
Single parent family 62 27% 0.06 -0.02 -0.07 0.06 70 47% 0.09 -0.09 -0.02 -0.28*
  1. *** significant at the p < 0.001 level, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  2. 1 Spearman rank correlations, 2 Pearson product correlations, 3When adjustments were done also for systolic blood pressure SBP, diastolic bloodpressure DBP, body mass index, p-glucose and physical activity the significant correlations between HF and SDNN and self-assessment scales remained (SOC: HF 0.42**,SDNN 0.24 ns; BDI: HF -0.36**, SDNN-0.32**, BAI: HF -0.36*, SDNN -0.29 ns, SDQ-em: HF -0.40*, SDNN -0.33*)