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Table 5 Binary multivariate logistic regression of responses to the EQ-5D items in type 2 diabetics, odds ratios (95% CI)

From: Health-related quality of life in diabetes: The associations of complications with EQ-5D scores

  EQ-5D dimensions
  Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression
Sex
(male = 0, female = 1)
0.68 (0.38 - 1.21) 0.59 (0.23 - 1.54) 0.47 (0.25 - 0.88)* 0.82 (0.53 - 1.27) 0.91 (0.54 - 1.52)
Age
(in 10 years)
1.36 (1.03 - 1.80)* 0.83 (0.55 - 1.25) 1.34 (1.00 - 1.80) 1.03 (0.83 - 1.24) 0.78 (0.62 - 0.99)*
Impaired vision
(normal = 0, reduced = 1)
2.96 (1.44 - 6.10)** 2.29 (0.77 - 6.75) 0.89 (0.39 - 2.04) ----- 1.46 (0.71 - 3.01)
Ischemic heart disease (no = 0, yes = 1) 1.97 (0.91 - 4.25) 1.77 (0.54 - 5.86) 1.14 (0.48 - 2.71) 2.51 (1.27 - 4.97)** 1.15 (0.53 - 2.50)
Proteinuria (no = 0, yes = 1) ----- ----- ----- ----- 0.42 (0.14 - 1.29)
Foot Ulcer (no = 0, yes = 1) 0.32 (0.07 - 1.39) 0.73 (0.11 - 4.67) 2.11 (0.48 - 9.39) 2.18 (0.54 - 8.79) 7.00 (1.53 - 31.97)*
Stroke (no = 0, yes = 1) 3.50 (1.13 - 10.82)* 1.45 (0.23 - 9.13) 4.48 (1.38 - 14.59)* 1.99 (0.72 - 5.54) 2.14 (0.69 - 6.62)
Neuropathy (no = 0, yes = 1) 12.07 (3.30 - 44.12)*** 2.74 (0.57 - 13.25) 3.08 (0.84 - 11.26) Predicts perfectly# 1.29 (0.40 - 4.16)
Body mass index (kg/m2 ) 1.12 (1.05 - 1.19)*** ----- ----- ----- -----
Disability pension (no = 0, yes = 1) ----- ----- 2.38 (1.20 - 4.69)*   -----
Number of hospital admissions during previous 6 months ----- ----- ----- ----- 1.87 (1.14 - 3.07)*
Receives help from others (no = 0, yes = 1) 5.85 (3.00 - 11.38)*** 6.95 (2.58 - 18.73)*** 4.67 (2.21 - 9.87)*** ----- -----
Hypoglycaemia index## ----- ----- ----- 1.68 (1.13 - 2.49)* 1.08 (0.70 - 1.68)
Fear of hypoglycaemia### (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ----- ----- ----- 5.76 (3.36 - 9.87)***
Limitations at work### (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ---- 6.95 (3.56 -13.56)*** ----- -----
Limitations socially### (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ---- 1.33 (0.67 - 2.62) ----- -----
Log likelihood -156.08 -66.13 -136.85 -232.10 -187.32
  1. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. # All patients reporting neuropathy also reports having problems in the PAIN/DISCOMFORT dimension of the EQ-5D.
  3. Cells with dotted line indicate that the variable was not included in the model.
  4. ## Self reported episodes of hypoglycaemia, with 4 levels of severity (level 1 = hypoglycaemia cured with the intake of for example fluids containing sugar, no help from other required, level 2 = hypoglycaemia cured with the intake of for example fluids containing sugar, help from others required, level 3 = hypoglycaemia with help from doctor required (no hospital admission), level 4 = hypoglycaemia resulting in hospital admission), then added with severity weights (level 1 × 1, level 2 × 2, level 3 × 3, level 4 × 4) and finally divided in 3 groups 0, 1-11 and 12 to max
  5. ### Self reported on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = not at all, 5 = very much), recoded to 2 levels (> and < than 2.5 due to imputed values having values with decimals)