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Table 4 Binary multivariate logistic regression of responses to the EQ-5D items in type 1 diabetics, odds ratios (95% CI)

From: Health-related quality of life in diabetes: The associations of complications with EQ-5D scores

  EQ-5D dimensions
  Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression
Sex (male = 0, female = 1) 0.63 (0.14 - 2.74) 0.25 (0.01 - 5.15) 0.67 (0.22 - 2.03) 0.45 (0.20 - 1.03) 1.12 (0.50 - 2.51)
Age (in 10 years) 1.33 (0.78 - 2.25) 1.37 (0.55 - 3.43) 0.93 (0.61 - 1.40) 1.36 (1.04 - 1.77)* 0.72 (0.55 - 0.94)*
Impaired vision (no = 0, yes = 1) 3.00 (0.53 - 16.85) 12.11 (0.49 - 297.88) 0.28 (0.07 - 1.15) ----- 4.60 (1.57 - 13.46)**
Ischemic heart disease (no = 0, yes = 1) 11.72 (2.02 - 68.09)** 1.24 (0.05 - 31.42) 4.15 (0.73 - 23.64) 5.84 (1.29 - 26.40)* 6.82 (1.34 - 34.75)*
Proteinuria (no = 0, yes = 1) ----- ----- ----- ----- 0.47 (0.09 - 2.47)
Foot Ulcer (no = 0, yes = 1) 13.33 (1.33 - 133.29)* 6.20 (0.17 - 221.73) 10.04 (0.80 - 126.22) 3.24 (0.47 - 22.43) 1.06 (0.16 - 6.96)
Stroke (no = 0, yes = 1) 0.47 (0.02 - 8.99) 17.37 (0.49 - 610.92) 1.24 (0.09 - 16.83) 10.66 (0.75 - 152.16) 1.14 (0.13 - 10.21)
Neuropathy (no = 0, yes = 1) 7.17 (1.22 - 42.03)* 5.86 (0.41 - 83.43) 6.96 (1.45 - 33.44) 27.13 (3.13 - 235.07)** 4.61 (1.05 - 20.21)*
Body mass index (kg/m2 ) 1.15 (1.02 - 1.30)* ----- ----- ----- -----
Disability pension (no = 0, yes = 1) ----- ----- 4.64 (1.33 - 16.18)* ----- -----
Number of hospital admissions during previous 6 months ----- ----- ----- ----- 1.22 (0.58 - 2.53)
Receives help from others (no = 0, yes = 1) 10.04 (2.03 - 49.69)** 10.28 (0.61 - 173.34) 1.90 (0.50 - 7.22) ----- -----
Hypoglycaemia index# ----- ----- ----- 1.59 (0.87 - 2.89) 1.29 (0.71 - 2.33)
Fear of hypoglycaemia## (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ----- ----- ----- 3.98 (1.78 - 8.93)**
Limitations at work## (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ----- 13.20 (3.38 - 51.53)*** ----- -----
Limitations socially## (small = 0, large = 1) ----- ----- 1.87 (0.65 - 5.37) ----- -----
Log likelihood -28.08 -9.96 -51.46 -85.06 -85.30
  1. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Cells with dotted line indicate that the variable was not included in the model.
  3. # Self reported episodes of hypoglycaemia, with 4 levels of severity (level 1 = hypoglycaemia cured with the intake of for example fluids containing sugar, no help from other required, level 2 = hypoglycaemia cured with the intake of for example fluids containing sugar, help from others required, level 3 = hypoglycaemia with help from doctor required (no hospital admission), level 4 = hypoglycaemia resulting in hospital admission), then added with severity weights (level 1 × 1, level 2 × 2, level 3 × 3, level 4 × 4) and finally divided in 3 groups 0, 1-11 and 12 to max
  4. ## Self reported on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = not at all, 5 = very much), recoded to 2 levels (> and < than 2.5 due to imputed values having values with decimals)