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Table 1 Socio-demographic variables and drug use patterns, in the overall sample and by gender.

From: Gender differences in health related quality of life of young heroin users

  Women
269 (27%)
n (%)
Men
722 (73%)
n (%)
Total
991
n (%)
p
Age (mean; [s.d.]) 25.00 [3.6] 25.9 [3.2] 25.7 [3.3] < 0.0001
Educational level     0.008
Primary or < 104 (38.8) 348 (48.2) 450 (45.7)  
> = Secondary 164 (61.2) 370 (51.8) 530 (54.3)  
Living arrangements     0.007
Flats 187 (69.5) 507 (70.2) 694 (70.0)  
Squats 56 (20.8) 103 (14.3) 159 (16.0)  
Homeless or institution 26 (9.7) 112 (15.5) 138 (13.9)  
Work     
Did not work
(with/without contract)
203 (75.5) 475 (65.8) 678 (68.4) 0.004
Ever in prison 71 (26.4) 347 (48.1) 418 (42.2) < 0.0001
Ever confined to bed 143 (54.0) 272 (38.0) 415 (42.3) < 0.0001
Inpatient in a hospital 65 (24.5) 142 (19.8) 207 (21.1) 0.107
Infections (n = 971)     
Ab* HIV + 61 (22.9) 116 (16.5) 177 (18.2) 0.020
Ab HCV + 132 (49.6) 375 (53.3) 507 (52.3) 0.311
Ab HBV core + 41 (15.4) 124 (17.6) 165 (17.0) 0.421
Alcohol use severity‡     0.004
No alcohol use 64 (23.9) 113 (15.8) 177 (18.0)  
Moderate 95 (35.4) 317 (44.3) 412 (41.9)  
At risk 41 (15.3) 133 (18.6) 174 (17.7)  
Heavy use 68 (25.4) 152 (21.3) 220 (22.4)  
N of years drug use (mean; [s.d.])     
Cocaine 8.2 [4.0] 9.6 [3.9] 9.2 [4.0] < 0.0001
Heroin 7.4 [4.6] 8.9 [4.3] 8.5 [4.5] < 0.0001
Poly-drug use 255 (94.8) 686 (95.0) 941 (95.0) 0.889
Ever injecting 164 (61.0) 473 (65.5) 637 (64.3) 0.184
Age first heroin use (mean; [s.d.]) 17.6 [3.4] 17.0 [3.1] 17.1 [3.2] 0.001
Age first injecting (mean; [s.d.]) 19.6 [3.7] 19.3 [3.9] 19.4 [3.8] 0.392
Intravenous use 135 (50.6) 381 (52.9) 516 (52.3) 0.511
Drug use treatment     0.291
Never 84 (31.7) 213 (29.7) 297 (30.2)  
Before last year 40 (15.1) 141 (19.7) 181 (18.4)  
Methadone last year 108 (40.8) 262 (36.5) 370 (37.7)  
Other last year 33 (12.5) 101 (14.1) 134 (13.6)  
Psychiatric treatment 25 (9.3) 51 (7.1) 76 (7.7) 0.241
Opiate Overdoses     
Ever in lifetime 71 (26.5) 173 (24.0) 244 (24.6) 0.412
Last 12 months 22 (8.2) 58 (8.0) 80 (8.1) 0.928
SDS * score (mean; [s.d.])     
Cocaine 5.3 [4.3] 4.8 [4.1] 4.9 [4.2] 0.089
Heroin 8.2 [3.3] 8.0 [3.4] 8.1 [3.4] 0.497
  1. * Ab: antibodies; SDS: Severity Dependence Scale.
  2. Refers to last 12 months.
  3. different cut-points used for both genders: men: 40-60 g/day; women: 20-40 g/day