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Table 2 Factors associated with the three DHP-18 scales, in people with type 2 diabetes

From: Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

  Barriers to activity
(N = 2,081)
Psychological distress
(N = 2,113)
Disinhibited eating
(N = 2,312)
  beta Se p beta se p beta se p
Intercept 94.99 1.38 < .001 96.64 1.54 < .001 82.27 1.38 < .001
Female 1.29 0.76 0.09 - 4.86 1.80 0.007 - 5.25 1.01 < .001
Age (1 yr) - 0.04 0.05 0.44 0.27 0.04 < .001 0.32 0.05 < .001
Educational level    < .001    < .001    
   Less than high school - 5.48 1.14 < .001 - 4.80 1.23 < .001    
   High school - 2.54 1.17 0.03 - 2.26 1.27 0.08    
   University 0.00    0.00      
Country of birth       0.02    
   Europe     - 3.41 1.75 0.05    
   France     0.00      
   North Africa     - 3.43 1.34 0.01    
   Other     - 0.60 1.72 0.73    
Living alone     3.77 0.84 < .001 - 2.61 1.10 0.02
Universal medical insurance coverage - 5.59 1.76 0.002 - 7.89 1.93 < .001    
Diabetes duration (years)    0.04    < .001    
   0-4 0.00    0.00      
   5-9 - 1.69 0.94 0.07 - 0.98 1.22 0.42    
   10-19 - 2.32 0.87 0.008 - 2.16 1.10 0.05    
   20 and more - 2.37 1.03 0.02 - 2.20 1.28 0.09    
Diabetes treatment    < .001    < .001    0.10
   Insulin - 9.49 1.23 < .001 - 8.54 1.94 < .001 - 3.35 1.61 0.04
   Insulin & OHAs - 8.79 1.32 < .001 - 2.43 1.97 0.22 - 1.64 1.89 0.39
   OHAs 0.00    0.00    0.00   
Macrovascular complication a - 3.00 0.90 < .001       
Microvascular complication b - 6.65 1.13 < .001 - 3.33 1.20 0.006    
Severe hypoglycemia in 2001 - 7.90 1.19 < .001       
Weight-loss diet - 4.10 0.76 < .001     - 6.35 1.03 < .001
At least one dietician visit in 2001 - 2.27 0.82 0.006 - 4.31 0.85 < .001    
Perceived weight variation       < .001    < .001
Decreasing     - 0.81 1.90 0.67 - 1.45 1.39 0.30
Increasing     - 8.46 1.96 < .001 - 9.65 1.42 < .001
Stable     0.00    0.00   
Insulin or Tablet forgetting          < .001
   Weekly        - 12.34 2.39 < .001
   Monthly        - 5.96 1.76 < .001
   Less than monthly        - 4.62 1.41 0.001
   Never        0.00   
Body Mass Index (1 kg/m²)        - 0.51 0.16 0.001
No regular physical activity c        - 6.25 1.78 < .001
Alcohol consumption    < .001    0.03    
   Daily or almost daily 0.00   . 0.00      
   Weekly - 0.20 0.92 0.83 - 1.79 1.11 0.11    
   Monthly - 2.14 1.14 0.06 - 3.95 1.57 0.01    
   Less than monthly - 1.18 1.16 0.31 - 1.56 1.79 0.39    
   Never - 5.86 1.04 < .001 - 5.46 1.66 0.001    
High level of cholesterol - 1.77 0.66 0.008 - 2.00 0.71 0.005 - 3.05 0.91 < .001
At least one psychiatrist visit in 2001 - 4.56 1.52 0.003     - 8.71 2.16 < .001
Psychotropic substances delivery during the last quarter 2001     - 2.82   0.79   < .001  
Other(s) disease(s) - 3.64 0.68 < .001 - 4.06 0.79 < .001 - 4.38 0.92 < .001
R² (%) 25    21    18   
  1. ENTRED 2001
  2. Empty cells mean that factors were not included in the final multivariable model.
  3. Underlining indicates the most important association with the DHP scores.
  4. a Presence of myocardial infarction, angina or heart arteries surgery; b Presence of foot ulcer, amputation, eye vision loss, dialysis or kidney transplantation; c House working, do-it-yourself, walking, building/unskilled working, or sport.
  5. Significant interactions were found in the three dimensions:
  6. - barriers to activity: age*other(s) disease(s), p < .0001; age*hypoglycemia, p = 0.006; age*treatment, p < .001;
  7. - psychological distress: Sex*Alcohol consumption, p = 0.05; Age*Hypoglycemic episode, p = 0.01; Age*Treatment, p = 0.008; Diabetes duration*Hypoglycemic episode, p = 0.002; Diabetes duration*Psychiatrist visit, p = 0.04; Diabetes duration*Weight, p = 0.01; Treatment*Other(s) disease(s), p = 0.008;
  8. - disinhibited eating: Sex*No regular physical activity, p = 0.005; Age*Living alone, p = 0.03; BMI*Diabetes duration, p = 0.004; BMI*Treatment, p = 0.005.