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Table 4 Variables associated with Anxiety and/or Depression in patients with COPD (multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression)*

From: Factors affecting the relationship between psychological status and quality of life in COPD patients

  Anxiety Depression Anxiety and Depression
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Socioeconomic status: I-III - - 5.51 (1.73, 17.53) 0.004 - -
Smoking status: current smokers 2.52 (1.36, 4.69) 0.004 5.70 (1.73, 18.77) 0.004 3.40 (1.33, 8.70) 0.010
Barthel Index: dependent - - 17.34 (4.20, 71.63) < 0.001 9.93 (3.18, 30.99) < 0.001
  1. CI: confidence interval; OR: odds ratio
  2. *The whole table is a single model with neither anxiety nor depression as the reference group. Other relevant potential confounders (see Methods), were also tested but not included in the final model because they were not independently related to the outcome, nor modified estimates for the remaining variables.
  3. According to International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO); I-III: high socioeconomic status.