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Table 3 Mean (SD) HUI2 Scores and Adjusted Differences by Demographic, Social, Health and Clinical Characteristics of Older Home Care Clients

From: Sex differences in the relative contribution of social and clinical factors to the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 measure of health-related quality of life in older home care clients

  N (%) HUI2 Meana (SD) Regression Coefficientb(SE)
Overall 489c 0.49 (0.18)    
Sex      
    Female 351 (71.8) 0.48 (0.18)   Ref  
    Male 138 (28.2) 0.52 (0.19) p = 0.0420 0.01 (0.02) p = 0.4369
Age Group      
    < 75 128 (26.2) 0.50 (0.20)   Ref  
    75-84 212 (43.4) 0.48 (0.19) p = 0.4136 -0.03 (0.02) p = 0.2044
    85+ 149 (30.4) 0.51 (0.16) p = 0.6418 -0.01 (0.02) p = 0.7953
Marital Status      
    married 151 (30.9) 0.48 (0.20) p = 0.9610 ----  
    widowed 266 (54.4) 0.50 (0.18) p = 0.5595 ----  
    other 72 (14.7) 0.48 (0.18)   ----  
Caregiver Stress      
    no indicators 409 (83.6) 0.51 (0.18)   Ref  
    1+ indicator(s) 80 (16.4) 0.40 (0.17) p < 0.0001 -0.09 (0.02) p < 0.0001
Reports Feels Lonely      
    no 378 (77.3) 0.50 (0.19)   Ref  
    yes 111 (22.7) 0.46 (0.18) p = 0.0783 -0.03 (0.02) p = 0.1655
Self-Rated Health      
    good/excellent 339 (69.3) 0.52 (0.18)   Ref  
    poor 150 (30.7) 0.42 (0.18) p < 0.0001 -0.07 (0.02) p = 0.0002
Arthritis      
    no 214 (43.8) 0.53 (0.18)   Ref  
    yes 275 (56.2) 0.46 (0.18) p < 0.0001 -0.04 (0.02) p = 0.0082
Congestive Heart Failure      
    no 365 (74.6) 0.50 (0.19)   Ref  
    yes 124 (25.4) 0.46 (0.17) p = 0.0486 -0.03 (0.02) p = 0.0622
Peripheral Vascular Disease      
    no 416 (85.1) 0.50 (0.18)   Ref  
    yes 73 (14.9) 0.46 (0.19) p = 0.1274 -0.02 (0.02) p = 0.4618
Hypertension      
    no 218 (44.6) 0.50 (0.19)   ----  
    yes 271 (55.4) 0.48 (0.18) p = 0.1505 ----  
Emphysema/COPD      
    no 378 (77.3) 0.50 (0.18)   Ref  
    yes 111 (22.7) 0.47 (0.19) p = 0.1485 0.004 (0.02) p = 0.8301
Osteoporosis      
    no 348 (71.2) 0.50 (0.19)   Ref  
    yes 141 (28.8) 0.47 (0.17) p = 0.0517 -0.01 (0.02) p = 0.6749
Psychiatric Diagnosis      
    no 351 (71.8) 0.51 (0.18)   Ref  
    yes 138 (28.2) 0.44 (0.18) p < 0.0001 -0.04 (0.02) p = 0.0399
Bladder Incontinence      
    no 298 (60.9) 0.52 (0.19)   Ref  
    yes 191 (39.1) 0.45 (0.17) p < 0.0001 -0.05 (0.02) p = 0.0064
Pressure Ulcer      
    no 440 (90.0) 0.49 (0.18)   Ref  
    yes (any stage 1-4) 20 (4.1) 0.43 (0.10) p = 0.1634 -0.03 (0.04) p = 0.4338
    missing value 29 (5.9) 0.48 (0.22) p = 0.7278 -0.08 (0.04) p = 0.0142
Urinary Tract Infection      
    no 472 (96.5) 0.49 (0.19)   Ref  
    yes 17 (3.5) 0.40 (0.15) p = 0.0325 -0.09 (0.04) p = 0.0299
  1. a Bivariate results from simple (unadjusted) linear regression models, comparisons with reference group.
  2. b Obtained from multivariable linear regression model, adjusting for all variables listed in table (R2 0.18).
  3. c 25 clients were excluded due to missing values for covariates.