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Table 6 Mean change and estimated mean change on the KINDL: Parent proxy report by grade

From: Changes in quality of life among Norwegian school children: a six-month follow-up study

  Mean change a SD Est. Mean change b SEM
Grade     
Family
10th 1.8 11.3 1.5 0.6
8th 1.0 12.1 1.2 0.6
6th 1.3 12.2 1.3 0.5
4th 1.9 11.1 1.8 0.5
Total 1.5 11.6 - -
Friends
10th 1.2 11.5 0.7 0.6
8th -0.1 11.1 0.1 0.6
6th 1.3 11.7 0.8 0.5
4th 1.3 10.5 2.0 0.5
Total 1.0 11.2 - -
School
10th 0.3 11.5 -2.1* c 0.7
8th 1.3 11.5 -0.1* 0.7
6th 1.6 17.9 1.2 0.6
4th -0.5 11.1 2.1 0.5
Total 0.6 13.4 - -
Emotional well-being
10th 1.2 12.2 0.7 0.7
8th 1.4 12.1 1.5 0.7
6th 2.0 13.7 1.4 0.3
4th 1.3 12.8 1.7 0.5
Total 1.4 12.8 - -
Self-esteem
10th 1.4 12.8 0.3 0.7
8th 0.5 13.7 0.2 0.7
6th -0.1 14.1 -0.8 0.6
4th 0.1 11.3 1.4 0.5
Total 0.4 12.9 - -
  1. aDifferences in mean change based on raw scores between baseline and follow-up (T2 minus T1).
  2. bEstimated marginal mean change scores by ANCOVA, using baseline-scores as covariates.
  3. cEffect size = 2%
  4. SD = Standard deviation; SEM = Standard error of the mean
  5. Sample size for 10th, 8th, 6th, 4th grades and total: 262, 266, 348, 434 and 1310.
  6. *p < 0.05