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Table 5 Mean change and estimated mean change on the KINDL: Student report by grade

From: Changes in quality of life among Norwegian school children: a six-month follow-up study

  Mean change a SD Est. Mean change b SEM Effect size (%)
Grade      
Family
10th 0.4 18.6 -2.3 0.7 3.3
8th -1.7 16.2 -2.2*** 0.8  
6th 2.1 14.9 3.1*** 0.7  
4th 1.0 16.7. 3.2 0.7  
Totalc 0.5 16.8 - -  
Friends
10th 1.1 14.8 0.2 0.6  
8th 1.0 15.4 0.8 0.7  
6th 1.4 15.7 2.4 0.7  
Totald 1.2 15.2 - -  
School
10th 1.4 16.9 -1.0 0.7 1.0
8th -0.5 15.7 -0.1* 0.7  
6th -0.3 15.1 2.2* 0.7  
Totald 0.3 16.0 - -  
Emotional well-being
10th 0.1 15.3 -0.9* 0.6 2.2
8th 0.3 14.8 0.9* 0.7  
6th 3.2 15.0 3.8* 0.6  
Totald 1.2 15.1 - -  
Self-esteem
10th 0.5 15.6 -0.3 0.8  
8th -0.9 18.6 -0.7 0.9  
6th 0.3 16.9 1.0 0.8  
4th -0.3 23.4 -0.3 0.8  
Totalc -0.1 18.9 - -  
  1. aDifferences in means based on raw scores between baseline and follow-up (T2 minus T1).
  2. bEstimated marginal mean change scores by ANCOVA, using baseline-scores as covariates.
  3. cTotal N = 1770; dtotal N= 1282.
  4. Sample size for 10th, 8th, 6th and 4th grades: 488, 370, 424 and 488.
  5. SD = Standard deviation; SEM = Standard error of the mean
  6. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001