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Table 3 Studies on relationship between quality of life data and survival in patients with breast cancer

From: Quality of life data as prognostic indicators of survival in cancer patients: an overview of the literature from 1982 to 2008

Author(s) Year Sample HRQOL measure(s)* Results*
Coates et al. [13] 1987 226 advanced breast cancer LASA scores for physical well-being + mood, pain, and appetite (as QOL index) Changes in QOL scores were independent prognostic of survival.
Coates et al. [46] 1992 226 advanced breast cancer LASA scores for physical well-being + mood, nausea, vomiting, and appetite (as QOL index) Both QOL index and physical well-being were independent prognostic factors of survival.
Fraser et al. [47] 1993 60 advanced breast cancer DDC + LASA + NHP The DDC provided accurate prognostic data regarding subsequent response and survival.
Seidman et al. [48] 1995 40 advanced breast cancer MSAS + MSAS-GDI + FLI-C + RMHI + BPI + MPAC Baseline global QOL and distress index scores independently predicted the overall survival.
Tross et al. [49] 1996 280 early stage breast cancer SCL-90-R No significant predictive effect of the level of depression on length of disease-free and overall survival observed.
Watson et al. [50] 1999 578 early stage breast cancer MAC + CECS + HADS Depression score of the HADS and helplessness and hopelessness category of the MAC had determinant effect on survival.
Coats et al. [51] 2000 227 metastatic and early stage breast cancer Physical well-being + mood, appetite, and coping (as QOL index) Disease-free survival was not significantly predicted by QOL scores at baseline or by changes in QOL scores. After relapse QOL scores were predictive for subsequent survival.
Kramer et al. [52] 2000 187 advanced breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 Pain was prognostic for survival. However, fatigue and emotional functioning were significant in backward selection model.
Shimozuma et al. [53] 2000 47 advanced or end stage breast cancer QOL-ACD Physical aspects of QOL were significantly related to survival. The change in scores of both overall QOL and the physical aspects of QOL were also significant predictors of survival.
Butow et al. [54] 2000 99 metastatic breast cancer Cognitive appraisal of threat + coping + psychological adjustment + perceived aim of treatment + social support + QOL Minimization was associated with longer survival while a better appetite predicted shorter duration of survival.
Luoma et al. [55] 2003 279 advanced breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 Baseline severe pain was predictive for a shorter overall survival. QOL scores had no great importance in predicting primary clinical endpoints such as time to progression or overall survival.
Winer et al. [56] 2004 474 metastatic breast cancer FLI-C + SDS Global QOL and symptom distress scores were prognostic for survival.
Efficace et al. [57] 2004 448 nonmetastatic breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 Baseline QOL had no prognostic value in nonmetastatic breast cancer.
Efficace et al. [58] 2004 275 matastatic breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + QLQ-BR23 Loss of appetite was a significant prognostic factor for survival.
Goodwin et al. [59] 2004 397 early stage breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + POMS + PAIS + IES + MACS +ACS + CECS QOL and psychological status at diagnosis and 1 year later were not associated with medical outcome.
Watson et al. [60] 2005 578 early stage breast cancer MAC + HADS Helplessness/hopelessness was a significant predictor of disease-free survival but depression was not.
Lehto et al. [61] 2006 72 localized breast cancer Coping + emotional expression + perceived support + life stresses + QOL Longer survival was predicted by a minimizing-related coping while shorter survival was predicted by anti-emotionality, escape coping, and high level of perceived support.
Gupta et al. [62] 2007 251 breast carcinoma Ferrans and Powers QLI Baseline patient satisfaction with health and physical functioning and overall HRQOL were significant prognostic of survival.
Groenvold et al. [63] 2007 1588 breast cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + HADS Emotional functioning was predicted overall survival and fatigue was independent predictor of recurrence-free survival.
  1. Abbreviations: ACS: Adjustment to Cancer Scale; BPI: Brief Pain Inventory; CECS: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale; DDC: Daily Dairy Card; EORTC QLQ-C30: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire; FLIC: Functional Living Index-Cancer; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IES: Impact of Events Scale; LASA: Linear Analog Self Assessment; MAC: Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale; MPAC: Memorial Pain Assessment Card; MSAS: Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale; MSAS-GDI: Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Global Distress Index; NHP: Nottingham Health Profile; PAIS: Psychological Adjustment to Illness Scale; POMS: Profile of Mood States; QLI: Quality of Life Index; QOL: quality of life; QOL-ACD: Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs; RMHI: Rand Mental Health Inventory; SCL-90-R: Symptom Check List-90 items-Revised; SDS: Symptom Distress Scale.
  2. * All results obtained from multivariate analyses after controlling for one or more demographic and known biomedical prognostic factors.