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Table 2 CD4 and Viral Load Adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR) of EQ-5D and Health Change in Cox Model of Survival

From: EuroQol (EQ-5D) measure of quality of life predicts mortality, emergency department utilization, and hospital discharge rates in HIV-infected adults under care

Measure1 Half yrs/n/deaths2 Adjusted4
   HR 95% CI p-value
Mobility 3006/953/47    <0.001
No problems 1908/./4 1.0   
Some problems 1052/./36 10.0 3.5–28.4 <0.001
Confined to bed 46/./7 27.0 7.7–94.9 <0.001
Self-Care 3007/954/47    <0.001
No problems 2421/./13 1.0   
Some problems 547/./26 5.0 2.5–10.0 <0.001
Unable to wash or dress 39/./8 14.1 5.5–36.0 <0.001
Usual Activities 3008/954/47    <0.001
No problems 1638/./5 1.0   
Some problems 1249/./27 4.3 1.6–11.3 <0.001
Unable to perform 121/./15 17.3 6.1–49.4 <0.001
Pain/Discomfort 3007/954/45    0.001
None 1085/./3 1.0   
Moderate 1609/./26 3.7 1.1–12.4 0.032
Extreme 313/./16 10.9 3.1–37.6 <0.001
Anxiety/Depression 3005/954/46    0.086
None 1389/./14 1.0   
Moderate 1365/./25 1.5 0.8–2.9 0.22
Extreme 251/./7 2.8 1.1–7.1 0.028
VAS 3 (per 10 units) 2987/950/44 0.73 0.63–0.83 <0.001
pVAS (per 10 units) 2994/948/45 0.66 0.56–0.77 <0.001
Health change 3006/955/46    <0.001
Better 761/./5 1.0   
Much the same 1722/./15 1.2 0.4–3.3 0.74
Worse 523/./26 4.6 1.7–12.2 0.002
  1. 1. Items 1–5 (Mobility, Self Care, Usual Activities, Pain/Discomfort, Anxiety/Depression) are EQ-5D health states. Health change is not part of EQ-5D. EQ-5D health states, VAS, health change, CD4 category, and HIV-1 plasma viral load are modelled as time-varying covariates.
  2. 2. Number of half years/number of patients/number of deaths. Note, the number of patients is not provided for individual categories as half years from the same patient can occur in multiple categories.
  3. 3. EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (VAS) rating of global health status (0–100); pVAS (predicted VAS; see Methods)
  4. 4. Each covariate is adjusted only for CD4 category (<50, 50–199, ≥200) and plasma HIV-1 viral load (<1,000, ≥1,000 copies), not for the other listed health status items. CD4 category and plasma HIV-1 viral load are modelled as time-varying covariates.