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Table 2 Child Self-Report: Means and Standard Deviations for the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales by Disease Cluster and Comparisons with Healthy Children Scores.

From: Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

  Healthya Diab.b GIc Card.d Asthmae Obesityf ESRDg Psych.h Canceri Rheum.j CPk  
Scale Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) ES Differences
Self-Report (n = 5480) (n = 300) (n = 280) (n = 250) (n = 162) (n = 63) (n = 85) (n = 296) (n = 393) (n = 336) (n = 77)  
Total Score 83.84 (12.65) 80.35 (12.89) 0.28 77.79 (13.24) 0.48 77.47 (14.51) 0.50 74.85 (16.52) 0.71 74.00 (14.20) 0.78 73.97 (15.22) 0.78 72.20 (12.70) 0.92 71.97 (16.12) 0.94 70.35 (17.83) 1.07 66.85 (16.73) 1.34 a > b, d, e, g, h, i, j, k, f, c***; b, d > h***; h > k*; b > e, g**; b > i, j, k***; d, c > i, j, k***; e > j*; e > k***; g > k*; i > k*; c > h***;b > f*
Physical Health 87.53 (13.50) 85.89 (13.33) 0.12 80.80 (13.84) 0.50 82.28 (15.68) 0.39 76.51 (18.01) 0.82 77.50 (17.90) 0.74 74.73 (20.43) 0.95 81.20 (14.20) 0.47 71.97 (21.37) 1.15 65.99 (23.81) 1.60 64.40 (22.08) 1.71 a > d, e, g, h, i, j, k, f, c***; b > h, f, c**; h > e, g*; h, c > i, j, k***; b > e, g, i, j, k ***; d > e, g**; d > i, j, k***; e, f > j, k***; e > i*; g > j, k***; i > j***; i > k**; c > g*
Psychosocial Health 81.87 (14.09) 77.34 (14.62) 0.32 76.18 (14.63) 0.40 74.88 (16.10) 0.50 73.95 (18.35) 0.56 72.10 (14.10) 0.69 73.54 (14.80) 0.59 67.40 (14.70) 1.03 72.10 (16.31) 0.69 72.67 (17.07) 0.65 68.11 (16.52) 0.98 a > b, k, e, g, h, i, j, k, f, c***; b, d, e, i, j, c > h***; g > h*; b > j**; b > i, k***; d > k**; c > i*; c > k**
Emotional Functioning 79.33 (18.15) 72.37 (19.57) 0.38 73.95 (18.76) 0.30 73.78 (20.38) 0.31 72.93 (22.58) 0.35 68.60 (18.50) 0.59 75.16 (18.88) 0.23 61.30 (19.50) 0.99 72.20 (20.84) 0.39 68.32 (22.85) 0.61 68.60 (22.93) 0.59 a > b, k, e, h, i, j, k, f, c***; b, d, e, g, i, j, c > h***; d > j*; c > j**
Social Functioning 85.15 (16.76) 85.63 (16.24) 0.03 84.33 (15.77) 0.05 78.74 (19.52) 0.38 78.94 (19.79) 0.37 72.60 (18.20) 0.75 78.46 (17.79) 0.40 73.00 (20.40) 0.72 75.54 (21.09) 0.57 80.10 (19.10) 0.30 70.52 (19.26) 0.87 a > d, e, h, i, j, k, f***; a > g*; b, j, c > h***; d > h**; e > h*; b > d, i, k***; b > e, j**; b > g*; d > k**; e, j > k***; j > i**; e > k*; c > d**; c > e*; c > i, k, f***; b > f***; j > f*
School Functioning 81.12 (16.45) 74.20 (18.08) 0.42 70.29 (18.56) 0.66 72.09 (19.01) 0.55 70.00 (21.44) 0.68 75.00 (14.50) 0.37 66.93 (19.15) 0.86 67.90 (16.70) 0.80 68.30 (19.53) 0.78 69.86 (19.97) 0.68 65.61 (22.18) 0.94 a > b, d, e, g, h, i, j, k, c***; b > h***; b > g, j, k**; b > i***; f > k*
  1. Note: *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001 based on analysis of variance with Tukey post-hoc tests.
  2. With a Bonferroni correction for the number of comparisons, p < .005 values should be considered statistically significant.
  3. Higher values equal better health-related quality of life. Disease clusters are ordered from left to right by decreasing overall HRQOL.
  4. ES equals effect size.
  5. Effect size represents the magnitude in the difference between the disease cluster and the healthy children sample.
  6. Effect sizes are designated as small (.20), medium (.50), and large (.80).
  7. Diab. equals Diabetes. Card. equals Cardiac. ESRD equals End Stage Renal Disease. Psych. equals Psychiatric Disorders. Rheum equals Rheumatology. CP equals Cerebral Palsy. GI equals Gastrointestinal Conditions.