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Table 4 Mean scores, SD's and differences by gender between adult patients and comparison group on the scales of the TAAQoL questionnaire

From: Living with muscular dystrophy: health related quality of life consequences for children and adults

TAAQOL Males Females
  mean (SD) mean (SD)   mean (SD) mean (SD)  
  MD Healthy   MD Healthy  
  N = 46 N = 1962 d N = 21 N = 2354 d
Gross Motor 34.6 (26.3)*** 88.2 (21.2) 2.5 29.5 (23.6)*** 83.7 (24.9) 2.2
Fine Motor 83.1 (20.8)*** 97.4 (10.4) 1.4 77.4 (16.9)*** 93.8 (16.0) 1.0
Cognitive Functioning 82.7 (24.4) 83.4 (22.0) 0.0 76.5 (29.8) 82.3 (23.4) 0.3
Sleeping 77.6 (32.1) 78.8 (24.1) 0.1 39.9 (36.4)** 69.8 (27.1) 1.1
Pain 69.4 (24.2)* 76.8 (22.9) 0.3 61.3 (33.7) 70.4 (25.0) 0.4
Social Functioning 89.5 (19.5) 84.8 (17.3) -0.3 91.4 (12.4)** 82.8 (20.7) -0.4
Daily activities 76.2 (31.4)* 85.8 (22.5) 0.4 65.2 (33.6)* 81.5 (26.5) 0.6
Sexual functioning 86.6 (30.4) 83.6 (27.7) -0.1 91.9 (15.9) 86.3 (23.6) -0.2
Vitality 53.6 (24.6)*** 68.0 (22.4) 0.6 43.3 (31.6)* 60.4 (24.7) 0.7
Happiness 67.6 (21.5) 65.2 (21.0) -0.1 60.3 (18.6) 64.1 (22.4) 0.2
Aggressiveness 78.7 (23.8)* 87.5 (17.2) 0.5 76.7 (26.5) 87.9 (16.4) 0.7
Depressive moods 72.3 (24.3)* 81.6 (19.2) 0.5 64.7 (21.9)* 75.0 (21.3) 0.5
  1. One sample t-tests *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001
  2. d = effect size
  3. Higher score represent a better HRQoL