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Table 3 Differences in ITAS scores (items, subscales, and total score) by insulin use

From: Further investigation of the psychometric properties of the insulin treatment appraisal scale among insulin-using and non-insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes: results from diabetes MILES – Australia

Item Non-insulin users Insulin users d
M ± SD A/SA% M ± SD A/SA%
1 Taking insulin means I have failed to manage my diabetes with diet and tablets 3.5 ± 1.3 58.3% 2.8 ± 1.3*** 39.4% 0.54
2 Taking insulin means my diabetes has become much worse 4.0 ± 1.0 80.2% 3.2 ± 1.2*** 51.0.0% 0.76
3^ Taking insulin helps to prevent complications of diabetes 3.9 ± 1.0 76.4% 3.9 ± 1.0 76.7% 0.04
4 Taking insulin means other people see me as a sicker person 3.3 ± 1.1 46.3% 2.7 ± 1.1*** 26.1% 0.53
5 Taking insulin makes life less flexible 3.6 ± 1.1 58.7% 2.8 ± 1.1*** 28.9% 0.71
6 I'm afraid of injecting myself with a needle 3.3 ± 1.4 47.9% 1.9 ± 1.2*** 10.4% 1.08
7 Taking insulin increases the risk of low blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia) 3.4 ± 1.0 46.5% 3.0 ± 1.1*** 36.1% 0.45
8^ Taking insulin helps to improve my health 3.8 ± .08 67.7% 3.9 ± 0.9 75.5% -0.12
9 Insulin causes weight gain 3.1 ± .08 18.2% 3.5 ± 1.0*** 50.6% -0.47
10 Managing insulin injections takes a lot of time and energy 3.3 ± 1.0 40.9% 2.4 ± 1.1*** 15.3% 1.04
11 Taking insulin means I have to give up activities I enjoy 2.7 ± 1.0 16.8% 2.1 ± 1.0*** 6.4% 0.63
12 Taking insulin means my health will deteriorate 2.8 ± 1.0 18.6% 2.2 ± 1.0*** 9.2% 0.57
13 Taking insulin is embarrassing 2.7 ± 1.1 21.6% 2.2 ± 1.1*** 14.9% 0.48
14 Injecting insulin is painful 3.1 ± 1.0 32.1% 2.4 ± 1.1*** 18.9% 0.67
15 It is difficult to inject the right amount of insulin correctly at the right time every day 3.0 ± 0.9 23.2% 2.1 ± 1.0*** 12.4% 0.86
16 Taking insulin makes it more difficult to fulfil my responsibilities (at work, at home) 2.8 ± 0.9 17.8% 2.0 ± 0.9*** 4.8% 0.92
17^ Taking insulin helps to maintain good control of my blood glucose 3.9 ± 0.8 74.7%% 3.9 ± 0.9 78.7% -0.05
18 Being on insulin causes family and friends to be more concerned about me 3.6 ± 0.9 57.7% 3.0 ± 1.0*** 33.7% 0.65
19^ Taking insulin helps to improve my energy levels 3.3 ± 0.7 30.9% 3.1 ± 0.9** 30.5% 0.28
20 Taking insulin makes me more dependent on my doctor 3.4 ± 0.9 47.3% 2.9 ± 1.1*** 33.7% 0.54
Total Score 60.7 ± 10.1 50.2 ± 10.3*** 1.03
Positive Subscale 14.9 ± 2.4 14.8 ± 2.6 0.04
Negative Subscale 51.6 ± 10.2 41.2 ± 9.6*** 1.04
  1. M: mean; SD: standard deviation; A/SA: Agree/Strongly Agree; ^ positive ITAS items, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
  2. Scoring: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree.