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Table 4 Ordinary least squares estimator of marginal effects for EQ-5D utility scores

From: Ethnic differences in health related quality of life for patients with type 2 diabetes

  Unadjusted β [Robust SE] (n = 1706) Partially adjusted β [Robust SE] (n = 1654) Fully adjusted β [Robust SE] (n = 1545)
Ethnicity (Referent = White Europeans)    
All South Asians -0.06 [0.02]** 0.02 [0.02] 0.06 [0.04]
Age (years)   -0.002 [0.001]* -0.002 [0.001]**
Gender (Referent = Male)    
Female   -0.10 [0.02]** -0.10 [0.02]**
Marital status (Referent = Single)    
Married   -0.08 [0.03]** -0.07 [0.03]*
Widowed   -0.03 [0.04] -0.02 [0.04]
Divorced   -0.14 [0.07]* -0.18 [0.06]**
Carstairs index (Referent = 10.0-17.0)    
-5 – 0.49   0.20 [0.03]** 0.05 [0.03]
0.5 – 3.9   0.16 [0.03]** 0.02 [0.03]
4.0 – 6.9   0.10 [0.03]** 0.01 [0.03]
7.0 – 9.9   0.08 [0.03]** 0.04 [0.03]
Smoking status (Referent = Non Smoker)    
Current smoker    -0.02 [0.02]
Ex-smoker    -0.05 [0.02]*
Alcohol use (Referent = No)    
Yes    0.003 [0.02]
BMI score (Referent 18.5 – 24.9)    
< 18.5    -0.19 [0.13]
25.0 – 29.9    -0.02 [0.02]
30.0 – 34.9    -0.08 [0.02]**
35.0 – 39.9    -0.14 [0.03]**
>40.0    -0.18 [0.04]**
Duration of diabetes (Referent = 0-1 years)    
2 – 5 years    -0.04 [0.02]
6 – 10 years    -0.04 [0.03]
11 – 15 years    -0.06 [0.03]
>15 years    -0.04 [0.03]
Diabetes treatment (Referent = Diet only)    
Tablets    -0.004 [0.02]
Insulin    -0.08 [0.04]*
Tablets and Insulin    -0.05 [0.03]
Family history of diabetes (Referent = No)    
Yes    0.01 [0.02]
History of chronic heart disease (Referent = No)    
Yes    -0.07 [0.02]**
Albumin concentration (Referent = Normal)    
Microalbuminuria    0.03 [0.02]
Proteinuria    -0.03 [0.04]
Constant 0.73 [0.01]** 0.79 [0.05]** 0.89 [0.08]**
  1. *p-value <0.05; **p-value <0.01.