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Table 1 Sociodemographic and psychometric characteristics of 461 patients

From: Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders

Variables Entire sample (100%) Multiple sclerosis§(46%) Depressive disorders (32%) Psychotic and other disorders (22%)* Statistics (Pearson’s χ2or ANOVA)
Gender, %      p < .0001
  Women 68 78 66 56
  Men 32 22 34 44
Age, years (Mean, standard deviation) 41 ± 13 43 ± 11 41 ± 14 38 ± 13 F = 5.2; p = .006
Family status , %      p < .0001
  Married 58 56 50 67
  With partner, not married 22 17 34 21
  Divorced 11 19 0 0
  Single 10 8 16 12
Educational level , %      p = .007
  Through Grade 9 24 22 26 26
  Through Grade 10 33 33 37 31
  High school diploma 38 36 37 41
  Other 5 9 0 1
Spiritual/religious self-categorization , %      n.s.
  R + S + (religious and spiritual) 15 12 16 18  
  R + S- (religious, not spiritual) 21 19 24 21  
  R-S + (not religious but spiritual) 15 16 14 14  
  R-S- (neither religious nor spiritual) 50 54 47 46  
Engagement in spiritual activities (0–100)**      
  Existential practices 54 ± 25 43 ± 11 60 ± 23 62 ± 22 F = 23.2; p < .0001
  Humanistic practices 65 ± 19 65 ± 19 66 ± 16 65 ± 20 F = 0.1; n.s.
  Religious practices 26 ± 24 22 ± 24 31 ± 25 27 ± 23 F = 5.1; p = .007
  Spiritual (MB) practices 19 ± 22 21 ± 24 15 ± 17 19 ± 21 F = 2.6; n.s.
  Gratitude/Awe 42 ± 24 44 ± 22 38 ± 25 43 ± 25 F = 2.2; n.s.
Life satisfaction Sum Score (BMLSS-10) (0-100) 54.6 ± 22.3 69.1 ± 17.1 42.5 ± 15.6 42.5 ± 20.7 F = 123.1; p < .0001
Life Satisfaction Subdimensions (0–6)      
  Family life 3.62 ± 1.83 4.60 ± 1.45 2.83 ± 1.55 2.84 ± 1.84 F = 66.0; p < .0001
  Friendships 3.70 ± 1.73 4.49 ± 1.43 3.03 ± 1.64 3.06 ± 1.73 F = 46.7; p < .0001
  Work situation 2.82 ± 1.96 3.69 ± 1.72 2.30 ± 1.75 2.18 ± 1.98 F = 28.2; p < .0001
  Myself 2.81 ± 1.80 4.00 ± 1.40 1.82 ± 1.44 1.88 ± 1.53 F = 121.5; p < .0001
  Where I live 4.01 ± 1.64 4.55 ± 1.42 3.50 ± 1.61 3.62 ± 1.71 F = 22.1; p < .0001
  Life in general 3.32 ± 1.69 4.39 ± 1.20 2.21 ± 1.37 2.32 ± 1.66 F = 142.6; p < .0001
  Financial situation 3.24 ± 1.83 3.93 ± 1.55 2.82 ± 1.76 2.59 ± 1.92 F = 29.6 ; p < .0001
  Future prospects 2.92 ± 1.60 3.64 ± 1.29 2.22 ± 1.49 2.43 ± 1.66 F = 43.5; p < .0001
  Health situation 2.45 ± 1.62 3.20 ± 1.49 1.89 ± 1.39 1.77 ± 1.47 F = 50.3; p < .0001
  Abilities to deal with  Daily life activities 3.07 ± 1.62 4.03 ± 1.33 2.29 ± 1.26 2.24 ± 1.47 F = 94.8; p < .0001
  1. *Among the group of 145 patients with psychiatric disorders, 23% had obsessive-compulsive disorders (n = 34; F42), 19% borderline disorders (n = 27; F60.31), 19% alcohol addiction (n = 27; F10), 7% other addictive disorders (n = 10; F20), 8% bipolar disorders (n = 12; F31), and various other diseases with < 5% each.
  2. **All scales had a normal distribution, while, typical for secular societies, the low engagement in Religious practices and Spiritual (mind-body) practices resulted in a left screwed distribution.
  3. §51% had relapsing remitting MS course, 25% progressive relapsing MS, and 23% chronic progressive MS; mean duration of disease = 10.7 ± 8.3 years; mean “Expanded Disability Status Scale” (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10) score = 3.7 ± 1.8 (indicating moderate disability).