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Table 3 Results of tests of MI across five chronic conditions, arranged by type of parameter

From: Measurement invariance across chronic conditions: a systematic review and an empirical investigation of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ™)

Scale Configural MI Metric MI Scalar MI Strict MI
   Diag Item EPC Diag Item EPC Diag Item EPC
Positive and active engagement in life     ortho 2 -0.24 copd 2 0.13
ortho 5 -0.18
asthma 2 -0.17
asthma 10 0.12
Health-directed activities     copd 19 0.24   ()  
Skill and technique acquisition     copd 23a -0.17 ortho 30 0.19
asthma 23a -0.09
Constructive attitudes and approaches copd 36 0.16 rheuma 36 0.13   ()  
Self-monitoring and insight ortho 11a -0.14 ortho 3 -0.10 orthob 11 -0.13
ortho 17 -0.13
asthma 3a -0.22
asthma 17a -0.20
copd 3a -0.31
cancer 11a -0.15 copd 6 0.34
copd 17a -0.21
cancer 6 -0.28
Health-service navigation     ortho 33a -0.21   ()  
rheuma 33a -0.29
Social integration and support          
Emotional distress     cancer 12 -0.19 ortho 7 -0.16
  1. Notes: MI: measurement invariance; numbers (“Item”) represent non-invariant heiQ™ items in the mentioned disease group (“Diag”), followed by EPC (Expected Parameter Change) with ortho = orthopedic conditions, rheuma = rheumatism; : all parameter invariant; (): no new DIF parameter, but parameters of items with DIF in a former stage were set free; ainvariant parameter in subgroups (for example item 3 has the same intercept in COPD and asthma); bin item 11, orthopedic group and cancer group show same factor loadings and intercept, but differ in residual variances.