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Table 4 Linear regression estimates of univariate predictors of mean (SE) increase/reduction (+/-) in PROQOL subscale and global scores (body of table), together with the percent of the score variances explained by fitting joint models of covariate blocks as grouped according to indication of sociodemographic, treatment, biomedical or clinical factors (R 2 ×100)

From: HIV-related stigma and physical symptoms have a persistent influence on health-related quality of life in Australians with HIV infection

  Emotional Health Social Intimate Stigma Body Phys. Health & Symptoms Treatment Impact^ Global
  Distress Concerns Relationships Relationships   Changes     
          7-factor^ 8-factor
All patients  
Mean (SE) 64.89 (2.63) 54.90 (2.64) 72.55 (2.58) 51.63 (2.98) 43.32 (3.10) 66.48 (2.58) 71.36 (2.14) - 60.62 (2.01) -
Treated patients  
Mean (SE) 65.16 (2.88) 57.69 (2.80) 73.41 (2.79) 52.01 (3.17) 46.66 (3.40) 66.52 (2.73) 71.05 (2.27) 81.08 (1.63) 61.66 (2.21) 64.07 (2.06)
Sociodemographic factors
Male gender +8.18 (7.43) +13.56 (7.36) +2.01 (7.33) -9.81 (8.41) +9.77 (8.71) +4.18 (7.32) +3.09 (6.05) +7.36 (4.86) +4.29 (5.67) +4.50 (6.18)
Transmission (ref: heterosexual/unknown)
IDU +11.61 (11.65) +14.29 (11.65) -0.89 (11.49) +2.28 (13.14) +27.39 (13.43)* +1.64 (11.49) +1.29 (9.48) +3.46 (6.77) +8.51 (8.89) +7.60 (8.57)
MSM +3.51 (5.49) +3.17 (5.49) -2.28 (5.42) -8.60 (6.19) +8.41 (6.36) +2.56 (5.42) -3.01 (4.47) +4.34 (3.46) +0.82 (4.21) +2.20 (4.41)
Caucasian race +11.38 (6.33) +18.93 (6.16) +4.84 (6.29) -2.75 (7.29) +5.98 (7.52) +10.87 (6.22) +4.29 (5.20) +11.34 (4.04) +7.52 (4.84) +9.16 (5.23)
Age >45 years +9.04 (5.22) +12.21 (5.16)* +8.24 (5.13) +12.32 (5.87)* +11.00 (6.13) +5.18 (5.17) +6.27 (4.25) +9.25 (3.12) +9.02 (3.95)* +9.23 (4.02)*
Living alone -0.33 (5.42) -2.15 (5.42) -11.91 (5.18)* -16.74 (5.91) -6.87 (6.36) -2.18 (5.32) -6.44 (4.35) +2.82 (3.38) -7.05 (4.1) -4.23 (4.29)
Diagnosed <2 years -0.98 (7.27) -22.96 (6.91) -2.65 (7.13) -3.79 (8.24) -18.98 (8.32)* +4.54 (7.13) +6.54 (5.86) -7.04 (5.61) -5.34 (5.52) -3.04 (7.12)
Unemployed or -23.14 (6.54) -5.95 (6.92) -20.63 (6.49) -16.88 (7.69)* -2.01 (8.14) -25.92 (6.3) -27.45 (4.91) -10.32 (4.07)* -17.32 (4.99) -16.34 (5.01)
sickness benefits           
Post-secondary +8.44 (5.44) +3.18 (5.5) -0.4 (5.4) -0.8 (6.24) -0.65 (6.47) +3.03 (5.39) +8.22 (4.39) -0.92 (3.42) +3.2 (4.19) +2.17 (4.31)
education           
Substance use over previous 2 weeks
Tobacco +1.1 (5.4) +1.49 (5.4) -8.65 (5.22) +6.95 (6.08) +1.75 (6.37) -4.62 (5.28) -7.68 (4.31) -0.81 (3.31) -1.69 (4.13) -1.09 (4.2)
Alcohol -3.29 (7.46) +10.37 (7.41) -0.06 (7.33) +0.04 (8.47) -0.96 (8.76) +4.12 (7.32) +1.92 (6.06) +3.18 (4.44) +1.88 (5.69) +3.57 (5.6)
Variance explained by sociodemographic factors
(proportion) 18.01% 22.49% 19.64% 20.7% 18.74% 20.69% 32.63% 20.6% 22.61% 21.22%
Treatment factors
On ART +1.82 (7.47) +18.94 (7.24)* +5.92 (7.31) +2.57 (8.47) +22.49 (8.46) +0.27 (7.33) -2.08 (6.06) - +7.00 (5.65) -
Current ART (ref: NNRTI)
none - 3.79 (7.96) -19.27 (7.74)* -7.50 (7.80) -6.44 (8.98) -15.00 (8.80) -2.09 (7.82) -2.99 (6.30) - -7.95 (6.04) -
PI -4.16 (5.75) -0.70 (5.59) -3.35 (5.63) -8.23 (6.48) +15.71 (6.37)* -3.86 (5.65) -10.76 (4.55)* -9.93 (3.10) -1.99 (4.37) -2.97 (4.13)
Time on HAART +0.23 (0.5) +1.38 (0.47) -0.07 (0.49) -0.04 (0.56) +1.44 (0.57)* -0 (0.48) -0.12 (0.4) +0.36 (0.28) +0.43 (0.38) +0.42 (0.36)
(per year) ^           
ART pill burden -2.78 (2) -0.68 (1.96) -2.06 (1.94) -3.74 (2.18) +3.06 (2.36) -2.12 (1.9) -3.06 (1.55) -3.36 (1.08) -1.56 (1.54) -1.78 (1.43)
(per tablet/day) ^           
ART non-adherent^ -2.48 (7.16) +2.13 (6.96) -3.26 (6.93) -7.21 (7.84) -2.8 (8.4) -1.57 (6.79) -6.58 (5.58) -9.22 (3.91)* -2.95 (5.46) -3.72 (5.07)
On non-ART -8.00 (5.41) -2.57 (5.47) -6.05 (5.34) -6.45 (6.17) +8.08 (6.38) -11.07 (5.26)* -12.39 (4.26) -1.19 (3.34) -5.35 (4.14) -4.61 (4.18)
medication           
Variance explained by treatment factors
(proportion) 8.33% 20.27% 4.02% 5.39% 17.01% 6.51% 14.28% 26.55% 10.18% 10.18%
Biological factors           
Body mass index           
(per unit) -0.01 (0.58) -0.35 (0.58) -0.29 (0.57) +0.20 (0.66) +0.02 (0.68) +0.08 (0.57) -0.18 (0.47) +0.16 (0.35) -0.07 (0.44) -0.01 (0.44)
CD4 count (per 100           
T cells) +0.25 (0.82) +1.50 (0.81) +0.30 (0.81) +1.90 (0.91)* +0.22 (0.97) +0.80 (0.80) +0.42 (0.66) +0.88 (0.47) +0.81 (0.62) +0.84 (0.60)
Detectable viral           
load -9.13 (6.08) -17.09 (5.92) -10 (5.95) -6.36 (6.94) -13.05 (7.10) -5.94 (6.01) -0.87 (4.99) -10.52 (4.61)* -8.79 (4.6) -10.96 (5.86)
Variance explained by biological factors
(proportion) 2.99% 11.15% 3.31% 4.57% 3.47% 2.07% 2.49% 10.00% 4.80% 5.51%
Clinical factors           
Depressive -27.84 (5.41) -11.26 (5.95) -19.64 (5.63) -20.76 (6.51) +4.91 (7.12) -17.22 (5.69) -24.26 (4.27) -6.49 (3.67) -16.48 (4.29) -16.42 (4.29)
Other comorbidity -10.5 (5.21)* +0.27 (5.32) -3.97 (5.2) -3.95 (6.02) +9.49 (6.2) -7.59 (5.16) -8.61 (4.23)* -3.35 (3.27) -3.35 (4.06) -4.35 (4.14)
Symptoms           
Sexual dysfunction -26.02 (5.57) -22.06 (5.75) -6.69 (6.00) -23.14 (6.58) -12.38 (7.11) -14.88 (5.85)* -23.6 (4.40) -7.86 (3.73)* -18.29 (4.31) -16.03 (4.49)
Gastrointestinal -6.73 (1.53) -3.99 (1.63)* -4.2 (1.59) -5.38 (1.82) -0.31 (1.97) -5.63 (1.54) -8.57 (1.05) -3.3 (0.94) -4.95 (1.18) -5.06 (1.15)
(per number)           
Malaise (per -8.11 (1.58) -4.75 (1.71) -6.44 (1.62) -4.28 (1.97)* +0.17 (2.09) -8.29 (1.53) -9.18 (1.11) -2.21 (1.12) -5.95 (1.22) -5.84 (1.3)
number)           
Morphological -4.71 (1.36) -2.2 (1.42) -2.75 (1.38)* -5.29 (1.54) -1.04 (1.68) -4.81 (1.33) -4.97 (1.05) -1.76 (0.84)* -3.65 (1.03) -3.66 (1.01)
(per number)           
Other (per number) -8.39 (2.5) -4.6 (2.6) -5.32 (2.53)* -4.34 (2.96) -0.8 (3.15) -11.06 (2.34) -9.17 (1.93) -2.48 (1.58) -6.71 (1.93) -7.01 (1.91)
Variance explained by clinical factors
(proportion) 37.25% 19.37% 19.68% 21.82% 6.7% 29.97% 62.04% 14.2% 31.92% 33.31%
Variance explained by all factors
(proportion) 63.64% 49.81% 37.24% 46.31% 33.07% 41.26% 75.36% 47.83% 53.01% 55.4%
  1. ^ Analysis restricted to treated patients only.
  2. P-values: P<0.001; 0.001≤P<0.01; * 0.01 P<0.05.