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Table 1 Comparison of chronic pain patients with strong and weak sense of coherence (SOC)*

From: Association between sense of coherence and health-related quality of life among primary care patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

Patient characteristic Strong SOC Weak SOC P value
(n = 152) (n = 98)
Age in years, mean (SD) 55.4 (8.4) 54.9 (8.6) .67
Male, n (%) 125 (82.2) 82 (83.7) .77
White, n, (%) 118 (77.6) 74 (75.5) .77
Education > high school, n (%) 123 (80.9) 62 (63.3) .002
Married, n (%) 106 (69.7) 79 (80.6) .056
Education > high school, n (%) 123 (80.9) 62 (63.3) .002
Employed, n (%) 105 (69.1) 55 (56.1) .019
Income adequate by self-report, n (%) 143 (94.1) 82 (83.7) <.0001
Socioeconomic index, mean (SD) 0.7 (0.7) 1.3 (1.0) <.0001
Major depression, n (%) 17 (11.2) 43 (43.9) <.0001
Comorbid medical diseases 1.9 (1.3) 2.3 (1.3) .015
Pain-specific scores, mean (SD)    
  BPI severity [0–10] 5.0 (1.8) 5.3 (1.5) .151
  BPI interference [0–10] 4.9 (2.2) 5.9 (2.2) .0004
  ASES pain self-efficacy [1-10] 6.9 (1.9) 5.3 (2.2) <.0001
  CSQ pain catastrophizing [0–36] 8.6 (6.5) 15.3 (9.2) <.0001
Health related quality of life scores, mean (SD)    
  SF-36 general health [0–100] 58.6 (26.4) 39.9 (29.4) <.0001
  SF-36 vitality [0–100] 47.6 (21.0) 29.7 (20.7) <.0001
  SF-36 social functioning [0–100] 75.4 (22.8) 53.3 (28.1) <.0001
  SF-12 physical component [norm = 50] 35.9 (9.3) 34.8 (8.9) <.343
  SF-12 mental component [norm = 50] 53.4 (8.9) 40.3 (12.6) <.0001
  1. *Numbers in brackets represent minimum to maximum scores on each scale, with worst scorerepresented by the bolded number.
  2. Strong SOC = score of 0 to1. Weak SOC = score of 2 to 6.
  3. BPI = Brief Pain Inventory; ASES = Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale; CSQ = Catastrophizing Strategies Questionnaire; SF-36 = the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey; SF-12 = the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey.