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Table 1 Sample ch aracteristics and association with CarerQol-VAS; n = 1,244

From: Measuring the impact of caregiving on informal carers: a construct validation study of the CarerQol instrument

    % CarerQol-VAS mean P-value a Spearman’s rho Standardised coefficients b
Caregiver Age <47.1 years 47.1 7.2 0.20 -0.04 -0.06
  ≥ 47.1 years   7.1    
Gender Female 58.3 7.0 0.02 - -
  Male 41.7 7.3    
Educational level Low 14.6 7.2 0.83 - -
  Middle 55.9 7.1    
  High 29.6 7.1    
Paid work Yes, full-time 26.7 7.4 0.00 - ref.
  Yes, part-time 27.0 7.2    -0.07*
  No 46.3 6.9    -0.06
Income (1-15)c      0.11***  
Incomed Low 31.7 7.0 0.04 - -0.10*
  Middle 24.0 7.1    -0.07
  High 16.9 7.4    ref.
  Missing 27.5 7.1    
EQ-5D score <0.8 0.84 6.4 0.00 0.35*** 0.08*
  ≥0.8   7.5    
Having a partner Yes 68.9 7.2 0.09 - -
  No 31.1 7.0    
Care recipient Age < 63.6 years 63.6 7.0 0.01 0.06* 0.06
  ≥ 63.6 years   7.2    
Gender Female 66.2 7.2 0.04 - -
  Male 33.8 7.0    
EQ-5D score <0.5 0.5 6.8 0.00 0.21*** 0.09**
  ≥0.5   7.4    
Level of independence (1-6) <4.3 4.3 7.2 0.03 0.06* -
  ≥4.3   7.0    
Surveillance needed 24/7 Yes 11.9 6.9 0.10 - -
  No 88.1 7.2    
Type of health problem Temporary condition 10.3 7.5 0.01 - -
  Chronic condition 89.7 7.1    
Care situation Relationship with care recipient Partner 15.3 7.0 0.02 - 0.02
  Parent (-in-law) 41.6 7.0    -0.09*
  Other family 24.4 7.2    -0.01
  Friend / acquaintance 18.8 7.4    ref.
Care recipient shares household Yes 31.0 7.0 0.02   -
  No 69.1 7.2    
Total years care <5.1 years 5.1 7.2 0.05e -0.05 -
  ≥5.1 years   7.0    
Days p/wk <4.1 days 4.1 7.2 0.12 -0.04 -
  ≥ 4.1days   7.1    
Hours p/wk <18.4 hours 18.4 7.2 0.10 -0.06* -
  ≥18.4 hours   7.0    
Professional caree Yes 49.6 7.0 0.00 - -
  No 50.3 7.2    
Day caree Yes 8.7 6.9 0.22 - -
  No 91.3 7.1    
Other informal caregivers Yes 31.4 7.2 0.09 - -
  No 68.7 7.1    
Institutionalization Yes 24.8 7.1 0.83 - -
  No 75.2 7.1    
Waiting liste Yes 11.9 7.1 0.89 - -
  No 88.1 7.1    
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p <0.001; aoneway anova test; bfrom multivariate regression analysis corrected for CarerQol-7D; ccontinuous variable, missings not included; dcategorical variable; ecaregivers of non-institutionalized care recipients only, n = 1062.