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Table 1 Participant demographics by sleeping quality and sleeping duration

From: Prevalence and impacts of poor sleep on quality of life and associated factors of good sleepers in a sample of older Chinese adults

  All participants(n = 301) Good sleepers Poor sleepers  Test statistic/  Long sleepers Short sleepers  Test statistic/ 
   (n = 67) (n = 234)  P   a  (n = 170) (n = 131)  P   a 
Age group        
60–69 years 58 (19.3%) 14 (20.9%) 44 (18.8%) χ2(2) = 0.17/ 37 (21.8%) 21 (16.0%) χ2(2) = 1.65/
70–79 years 135 (44.9%) 29 (43.3%) 106 (45.3%) 0.92 75 (44.1%) 60 (45.8%) 0.44
80+ years 108 (35.9%) 24 (35.8%) 84 (35.9%)   58 (34.1%) 50 (38.2%)  
Gender        
Male 47 (15.6%) 17 (25.4%) 30 (12.8%) χ2(1) = 6.23/ 31 (18.2%) 16 (12.2%) χ2(1) = 2.04/
Female 254 (84.4%) 50 (74.6%) 204 (87.2%) 0.01 139 (81.8%) 204 (87.8%) 0.15
Marital status        
Single/divorced/widowed 197 (65.4%) 39 (58.2%) 158 (67.5%) χ2(1) = 2.00/ 106 (62.4%) 91 (69.5%) χ2(1) = 1.66/
Married 104 (34.6%) 28 (41.8%) 76 (32.5%) 0.16 64 (37.6%) 40 (30.5%) 0.20
Education level        
0–6 years 228 (75.7%) 43 (64.2%) 185 (79.1%) χ2(1) = 6.28/ 119 (70.0%) 109 (83.2%) χ2(1) = 7.02/
7+ years 73 (24.3%) 28 (35.8%) 49 (20.9%) 0.01 51 (30.0%) 22 (16.8%) 0.008
Occupational status        
Full-/part-time 7 (2.2%) 2 (2.9%) 5 (2%) χ2(1) = 0.17/ 3 (1.8%) 4 (3.1%) χ2(1) = 0.54/
Retired/unemployed 294 (97.7%) 65 (97.0%) 229 (97.9%) 0.69 167 (98.2%) 127 (96.9%) 0.46
Living arrangement        
Live alone 112 (37.2%) 20 (29.9%) 92 (39.3%) χ2(1) = 2.00/ 59 (34.7%) 53 (40.5%) χ2(1) = 1.05/
Live with others 189 (62.8%) 47 (70.1%) 142 (60.7%) 0.16 111 (65.3%) 78 (59.5%) 0.31
Financial status        
Sufficient 274 (91.0%) 64 (95.4%) 210 (89.7%) χ2(1) = 2.13/ 159 (93.5%) 115 (87.8%) χ2(1) = 2.99/
Insufficient 27 (9.0%) 3 (4.5%) 24 (10.3%) 0.14 11 (6.5%) 16 (12.2%) 0.08
Perceived health        
Fair, good, or excellent 230 (76.4%)71 (23.6%) 60 (89.6%)7 (10.4%) 170 (72.6%)64 (27.4%) χ2(1) = 8.26/ 0.004 140 (82.4%)30 (17.6%) 90 (68.7%)41 (23.6%) χ2(1) = 7.65/ 0.006
Poor or very poor 71 (23.6%) 7 (10.4%) 64 (27.4%) 0.004 30 (17.6%) 41 (23.6%) 0.006
Chronic illness        
Yes 237 (78.7%) 50 (74.6%) 187 (79.9%) χ2(1) = 0.87/ 132 (77.6%) 105 (80.2%) χ2(1) = 0.28/
No 64 (21.3%) 17 (25.4%) 47 (20.1%) 0.35 38 (22.4%) 26 (19.8%) 0.60
Global PSQI score      5.0 (3.25) 11.0 (4.0) Z = 12.78/ ≤ 0.001
Median (IQR) 7.0 (5.5)       
Range 0-20       
Sleep duration (hours per day)        
Median (IQR) 5.5 (1.0) 7.0 (1.0) 5.0 (2.0) Z = 9.39/ < 0.001    
Range 1.5-9.5       
  1. PSQI: Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index.
  2. a Differences between good sleepers and poor sleepers.
  3. Good sleeper: global PSQI score < 5. Poor sleeper: global PSQI score ≥5.
  4. Long sleeper: sleep duration  ≥  5.5 hours per day. Short sleeper: sleep duration <5.5 hours per day.