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Table 1 QoL domains and number of codes and coded statements within each domain (in brackets)

From: QLiS – development of a schizophrenia-specific quality-of-life scale

Positive QoL domains Negative QoL domains
physical and mental health (7;142) physical and mental illness (17;364)
including not living in fear, healthy lifestyle, having vitality to live including suffering from treatment consequences/symptoms/chronic state of disorder, having an addiction
work/education (10;165) deficits in work life/work functioning (12;89)
including enjoyable work, work matching ones capabilities, getting money for work including being unemployed, excessive work demands, conflicts at the work place, bad pay
oral needs* (6;291) deprivation of oral needs (5;46)
including food, coffee, alcohol, smoking including bad food, not being allowed to smoke
family (6;199) disturbed family situation (4;52)
including having contact with ones’ family, parents, own children including conflicts within family, lack of contact, not being able to care for ones’ family
social relationships (16;265) tensions in social contacts (13;216)
including attention and thoughtfulness, friends, positive relations to other patients including tensions with others, selfish behaviours of others, loneliness, excessive social demands, commiseration with others, social injustice
partnership/sexuality (3;112) problems with partner/spouse (3;35)
including contact with spouse, sexual contacts problems with partner, being separated from partner, having no partner
spare time activities (19;481) stigma/rejection by environment (4;47)
comprising a large number of different activities not being taken seriously, stigma due to outward appearance, being misunderstood
(social-) psychiatry setting (10;91) suffering related to (social-) psychiatric setting (8;128)
including aspects of medical treatment, sociotherapy, good care, fewer restrictions due to setting including feeling imprisoned, restrictions and disturbances due to setting, poor-quality care
ideas of how to lead a good life (11;170) restrictions on personal way of live (6;73)
including living like normal people, freedom, routine in life, having future prospects including worries about future, not being able to cope/inability to live life according to one’s beliefs, restrictions on freedom, dependence
housing/living environment (10;117) poor housing/living environment (8;71)
including cleanliness of living environment, safe environment, living independently, having a place to retreat to including lack of privacy, hectic pace, noise, untidiness/lack of hygiene
emotional well-being (9;158) lack of emotional well-being (5;35)
including satisfaction, happiness, love, relaxation, calmness including unhappiness, bad temper, lack of well-being
mental lucidity (4;26) difficulties in daily living (3;46)
learning new things, being creative, societal/political interests including boredom/monotony, fears/insecurities in daily activities, lack of personal hygiene
standard of living (10;182) deficient material/social security (5;87)
including money, financial security, wearing normal clothes, having enough to eat and drink, not being homeless including poverty, lack of money, being homeless, lack of food, lack of social security
nature (3;44) aggression/violence (4;65)
clean natural environment, good weather physical violence, aggression within psychiatric settings, own aggression
hygiene and appearance (2;28) deficient self esteem (2;36)
personal hygiene, a good outward appearance including poor physical appearance
faith/religion (1;32) general statements of deficient quality of life (1;21)
  1. *basic needs related to eating, drinking & smoking.