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Table 1 QoL domains and number of codes and coded statements within each domain (in brackets)

From: QLiS – development of a schizophrenia-specific quality-of-life scale

Positive QoL domains

Negative QoL domains

physical and mental health (7;142)

physical and mental illness (17;364)

including not living in fear, healthy lifestyle, having vitality to live

including suffering from treatment consequences/symptoms/chronic state of disorder, having an addiction

work/education (10;165)

deficits in work life/work functioning (12;89)

including enjoyable work, work matching ones capabilities, getting money for work

including being unemployed, excessive work demands, conflicts at the work place, bad pay

oral needs* (6;291)

deprivation of oral needs (5;46)

including food, coffee, alcohol, smoking

including bad food, not being allowed to smoke

family (6;199)

disturbed family situation (4;52)

including having contact with ones’ family, parents, own children

including conflicts within family, lack of contact, not being able to care for ones’ family

social relationships (16;265)

tensions in social contacts (13;216)

including attention and thoughtfulness, friends, positive relations to other patients

including tensions with others, selfish behaviours of others, loneliness, excessive social demands, commiseration with others, social injustice

partnership/sexuality (3;112)

problems with partner/spouse (3;35)

including contact with spouse, sexual contacts

problems with partner, being separated from partner, having no partner

spare time activities (19;481)

stigma/rejection by environment (4;47)

comprising a large number of different activities

not being taken seriously, stigma due to outward appearance, being misunderstood

(social-) psychiatry setting (10;91)

suffering related to (social-) psychiatric setting (8;128)

including aspects of medical treatment, sociotherapy, good care, fewer restrictions due to setting

including feeling imprisoned, restrictions and disturbances due to setting, poor-quality care

ideas of how to lead a good life (11;170)

restrictions on personal way of live (6;73)

including living like normal people, freedom, routine in life, having future prospects

including worries about future, not being able to cope/inability to live life according to one’s beliefs, restrictions on freedom, dependence

housing/living environment (10;117)

poor housing/living environment (8;71)

including cleanliness of living environment, safe environment, living independently, having a place to retreat to

including lack of privacy, hectic pace, noise, untidiness/lack of hygiene

emotional well-being (9;158)

lack of emotional well-being (5;35)

including satisfaction, happiness, love, relaxation, calmness

including unhappiness, bad temper, lack of well-being

mental lucidity (4;26)

difficulties in daily living (3;46)

learning new things, being creative, societal/political interests

including boredom/monotony, fears/insecurities in daily activities, lack of personal hygiene

standard of living (10;182)

deficient material/social security (5;87)

including money, financial security, wearing normal clothes, having enough to eat and drink, not being homeless

including poverty, lack of money, being homeless, lack of food, lack of social security

nature (3;44)

aggression/violence (4;65)

clean natural environment, good weather

physical violence, aggression within psychiatric settings, own aggression

hygiene and appearance (2;28)

deficient self esteem (2;36)

personal hygiene, a good outward appearance

including poor physical appearance

faith/religion (1;32)

general statements of deficient quality of life (1;21)

  1. *basic needs related to eating, drinking & smoking.