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Table 1 Characteristics of Patients

From: The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

  Patients completing the Chinese EQ-5D-3L (N = 335) Patients completing the English EQ-5D-3L (N = 298) P value
Age at survey, mean(SD) 65.9 (9.0) 59.2 (10.8) < 0.001
Male, N (%) 144 (43.1) 157 (53.2) 0.011
Ethnicity, N (%)    
   Chinese 335 (100) 166 (56.1) < 0.001
   Malay/India/other 0 (0) 130 (43.9)  
Employment status, N (%)    
   Employed 99 (29.6) 140 (47.3) < 0.001
   Retired 139 (41.5) 86 (29.1)  
   Housekeeper/unemployed 97 (28.9) 70 (23.6)  
Education attainment, N (%)    
   No formal qualifications 134 (40.4) 31 (10.5) < 0.001
   Primary school education 121 (36.4) 59 (20.1)  
   Secondary school education 61 (18.4) 117 (39.8)  
   Tertiary education 16 (4.8) 87 (29.6)  
BMI category    
   Non-obese (BMI < 30), N (%) 280 (87.0) 233 (81.2) 0.122
   Obese (BMI ≥ 30), N (%) 42 (13.0) 54 (18.8)  
Duration of diabetes    
   < 10 years, N (%) 180 (45.9) 168 (56.9) 0.466
   ≥ 10 years, N (%) 153 (54.1) 127 (43.1)  
Presence of 1 or more diabetes-related complications, N (%) 144 (43.0) 112 (37.6) 0.167
Presence of 1 or more comorbidities, N (%) 271 (80.9) 211 (70.8) 0.003
Self-reported global heath    
   Excellent/very good/good 205 (61.2) 215 (72.4) 0.003
   Fair/poor 130 (38.8) 82 (27.6)  
EQ-VAS, mean (SD) 68.9 (16.7) 69.9 (16.8) 0.498
EQ-5D-3L index score, mean(SD) 0.86 (0.18) 0.87 (0.19) 0.519
Administration mode    
   Self-completion 17 (5.1) 87 (29.2) < 0.001
   Interviewer-administered 318 (94.9) 211 (70.8)  
  1. Notes: complications were conditions or diseases related to diabetes including stroke, ischemic heart disease, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and eye disease; comorbidities included cancer, arthritis, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, asthma, lung conditions, liver conditions, mental disorders, urological disease, and ear, nose or throat diseases.