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Table 11 Results of studies assessing construct validity of the instruments included in the review

From: Measuring carer quality of life in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of self-report instruments using COSMIN

Instrument Validity study type N (DMD subsample) Mean (SD) Age (DMD subsample) % Female (DMD subsample) Country Results consistent with reviewer hypotheses Rating Quality of evidence
CSI Known groups [7] 80 57 (6.8) 69 Netherlands 0 out of 1 Very low
DUKE Convergent [36] 126 43 (6.1) 57.14 Taiwan 3 out of 4 + High
Known groups [40] 113 (55 DMD) 45.89 (7.27) (DMD 44.87 (7.23)) 57.52 (DMD 56.36) Taiwan 0 out of 1
EQ-5D-3L Known groups [31] 770 44 (8) 79 Germany, Italy, UK, US 13 out of 18 Low
ESS Known groups [45] 70 (35 DMD) 46.3 (1.3) for DMD carers 100 Brazil 1 out of 2 Low
FAPGAR Convergent [36] 126 43 (6.1) 57.14 Taiwan 3 out of 4 + High
Known groups [40] 113 (55 DMD) 45.89 (7.27) (DMD 44.87 (7.23)) 57.52 (DMD 56.36) Taiwan 1 out of 1 +
HADS (Anxiety) Convergent [7] 80 57 (6.8) 69 Netherlands 2 out of 2 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
HADS (Depression) Convergent [7] 80 57 (6.8) 69 Netherlands 1 out of 1 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
PAS Convergent [51] 205 at baseline (147 at year 1, 144 at year 2) 44 (8.7) 100 USA 3 out of 8 Very low
PedsQL FIM Known groups [49] 15 41.7 (not reported) 60 China 1 out of 2 Very low
PSQI Known groups [52] 64 (32 DMD) 46.2 (8.1) for DMD carers 100 Brazil 1 out of 1 + Moderate
Known groups [45] 70 (35 DMD) 46.3 (1.3) for DMD carers 100 Brazil 0 out of 1
PSS Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 + Low
QRS Convergent [53] 36 43.04 (5.52) 69.44 Canada 3 out of 3 + Moderate
Convergent [54] 56 (17 DMD) 43.4 (4.5) for DMD carers 64.29 (82.35 for DMD) Canada 1 out of 1 +
SCL-90-R Convergent [56] 35 NR 91.43 USA 6 out of 8 + Very low
SF-12 (MCS) Known groups [31] 770 44 (8) 79 Germany, Italy, UK, US 2 out of 3 Low
SF-36 (BP/Pain) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 5 out of 8 High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (E|F/VT) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 5 out of 8 High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (EW/MH) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 6 out of 8 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (GH) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 6 out of 8 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (MCS) Convergent [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 2 out of 4 Low
SF-36 (PCS) Convergent [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 4 out of 4 + Low
SF-36 (PF) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 8 out of 8 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (RE) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 8 out of 8 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (RP) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 7 out of 8 + High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SF-36 (SF) Convergent + known groups [33] 62
(53 DMD)
40.1 (8.8) for DMD carers 66.13 (62.2 DMD) Taiwan 4 out of 8 High
Known groups [32] 82 (71 DMD) 40.40 (6.98) 100 USA 1 out of 1 +
SNQ (Subscale A) Convergent [46] 336
(246 DMD)
41.2 (6.2) for DMD carers 84.2 (83.3 DMD) Italy 1 out of 3 Very low
STAI-X (state) Known groups [55] 37 (17 DMD) 37.68 (8) for DMD carers 100 Turkey 0 out of 1 Very low
STAI-X (trait) Known groups [55] 37 (17 DMD) 37.68 (8) for DMD carers 100 Turkey 0 out of 1 Very low
SWLS Convergent [54] 56
(17 DMD)
43.4 (4.5) for DMD carers 64.29 (82.35 for DMD) Canada 1 out of 1 + Very low
WHOQOL-BREF Convergent [58] 31 38 (not reported) 83.87 Brazil 1 out of 3 Moderate
Convergent + known groups [57] 30 39.20 (8.32) 93.3 Brazil 5 out of 6 +
Known groups [34] 90 (67 DMD) 42.9 (8.7) 90 South Korea 0 out of 1
ZBI (22 item) Convergent [58] 31 38 (not reported) 83.87 Brazil 2 out of 3 Low
Convergent [59] 35 38.7 (8.2) 91.4 Brazil 0 out of 4
Known groups [31] 770 44 (8) 79 Germany, Italy, UK, US 3 out of 3 +
  1. Citation next to validity study type is for the study assessing this measurement property.
  2. BP/Pain, bodily pain/pain subscale; E|F/VT, energy|fatigue/vitality subscale; EW/MH, emotional wellbeing/mental health subscale; GH, general health subscale; MCS, mental component summary score; PCS, physical component summary score; PF, physical functioning subscale; RE, role emotional subscale; RP, role physical subscale; SF, social functioning subscale