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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of all patients and associations between the variables for the two groups

From: Demoralization in oral cancer inpatients and its association with spiritual needs, quality of life, and suicidal ideation: a cross-sectional study

  Total DS-MV˂ = 30 (n = 100) DS-MV > 30 (n = 55) p value
Age 52.9 (45.4–59.2) 53.3 (44.8–59.8) 52.2 (47–59.2) 0.982
Gender     0.455
 Male 147 (94.8%) 96 (96.0%) 51 (92.7%)  
 Female 8 (5.2%) 4 (4.0%) 4 (7.3%)  
Education     0.627
 Elementary school 16 (10.3%) 10 (10.0%) 6 (10.9%)  
 Junior school 55 (35.5%) 35 (35.0%) 20 (36.4%)  
 Senior high school 68 (43.9%) 47 (47.0%) 21 (38.2%)  
 College 13 (8.4%) 6 (6.0%) 7 (12.7%)  
 Research institute 3 (1.9%) 2 (2.0%) 1 (1.8%)  
Marital status     0.743
 Married 119 (76.8%) 79 (79.0%) 40 (72.7%)  
 Never married 23 (14.8%) 14 (14.0%) 9 (16.4%)  
 Divorced 10 (6.5%) 5 (5.0%) 5 (9.1%) (9.1%)
 Widowed 3 (1.9%) 2 (2.0%) 1 (1.8%)  
Religious affiliation     0.261
 Atheist 21 (13.5%) 14 (14.0%) 7 (12.7%)  
 Taoism 83 (53.5%) 58 (58.0%) 25 (45.5%)  
 Buddhism 40 (25.8%) 21 (21.0%) 19 (34.5%)  
 Christianity 3 (1.9%) 1 (1.0%) 2 (3.6%)  
 Other 8 (5.2%) 6 (6.0%) 2 (3.6%)  
Employment status     0.394
 Full-time job 104 (67.1%) 69 (69.0%) 35 (63.6%)  
 Retired 22 (14.2%) 14 (14.0%) 8 (14.5%)  
 Part-time job 17 (11.0%) 8 (8.0%) 9 (16.4%)  
 Unemployment 9 (5.8%) 6 (6.0%) 3 (5.5%)  
 Housewife/househusband 3 (1.9%) 3 (3.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Monthly income(NTD)     0.069
 $20,000 or less 36 (23.2%) 21 (21.0%) 15 (27.3%)  
 $20,001–$40,000 59 (38.1%) 39 (39.0%) 20 (36.4%)  
 $40,001–$60,000 41 (26.5%) 23 (23.0%) 18 (32.7%)  
 $60,001 or more 19 (12.3%) 17 (17.0%) 2 (3.6%)  
Tumor stage     0.567
 0 2 (1.3%) 2 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 I 31 (20.0%) 20 (20.0%) 11 (20.0%)  
 II 39 (25.2%) 23 (23.0%) 16 (29.1%)  
 III 21 (13.5%) 16 (16.0%) 5 (9.1%)  
 IV 62 (40.0%) 39 (39.0%) 23 (41.8%)  
Treatment     0.303
 Surgery 132 (85.2%) 88 (88.0%) 44 (80.0%)  
 Chemotherapy 10 (6.5%) 6 (6.0%) 4 (7.3%)  
 Symptom relief 12 (7.7%) 5 (5.0%) 7 (12.7%)  
 Immunotherapy 1 (0.6%) 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Time since diagnosis     0.185
 1–2 years 11 (7.1%) 6 (6.0%) 5 (9.1%)  
    < 3 months 83 (53.5%) 60 (60.0%) 23 (41.8%)  
 3 months–1 year 17 (11.0%) 10 (10.0%) 7 (12.7%)  
   > 2 years 44 (28.4%) 24 (24.0%) 20 (36.4%)  
 Recurrence (Yes) 41 (26.5%) 22 (22.0%) 19 (34.5%) 0.133
 Under anti-cancer treatment(Yes) 145 (100%) 96 (96.0%) 49 (89.1%) 0.168
Location     0.083
 Tongue 61 (39.4%) 37 (37.0%) 24 (43.6%)  
 Buccal 44 (28.4%) 35 (35.0%) 9 (16.4%)  
 Gum 26 (16.8%) 16 (16.0%) 10 (18.2%)  
 Mouth 19 (12.3%) 11 (11.0%) 8 (14.5%)  
 Lip 4 (2.6%) 1 (1.0%) 3 (5.5%)  
 Oropharynx 1 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.8%)  
Suicidal ideation(Yes) 18 (11.6%) 16 29.1% 2 2%  < 0.001*
Global health status/QoL 50.0 (33.3-66.7) 58.0 (41.8–75) 50.0 (17–58.3)  < 0.001*
 Functional scales 69.0 (57-81) 77.2 (63.3–86.6) 59.4 (46.3–69.3)  < 0.001*
  Physical functioning 73.3 (60-87) 80.0 (61.7–93) 67.0 (46.7–86.7) 0.015
  Role functioning 66.7 (33.3-100) 66.7 (33.3–100) 50.0 (33–100) 0.048
  Emotional functioning 75.0 (66.7-91.7) 83.3 (67–100) 66.7 (50–75)  < 0.001*
  Cognitive functioning 83.3 (66.7-100) 83.3 (67–100) 66.7 (50–83.3)  < 0.001*
  Social functioning 66.7 (33.3-83.3) 66.7 (50–83.3) 33.3 (33–66.7)  < 0.001*
 Symptom scales 25.9 (16-35.8) 22.5 (12.7–31.3) 34.6 (24.1–41.4)  < 0.001*
  Fatigue 33.3 (22.2-55.6) 33.3 (11.1–44.4) 44.4 (33.3–66.7)  < 0.001*
  Nausea and vomiting 0.0 (0-16.7) 0.0 (0–16.7) 0.0 (0–16.7) 0.097
  Pain 33.3 (16.7-66.7) 33.0 (16.7–50) 50.0 (33.3–66.7)  < 0.001*
  Dyspnoea 0.0 (0-33.3) 0.0 (0–33.3) 33.0 (0–33.3) 0.033
  Insomnia 33.3 (33-66.7) 33.3 (0–66.7) 33.3 (33–66.7) 0.319
  Appetite loss 0.0 (0-33.3) 0.0 (0–33.3) 33.0 (0–33.3) 0.096
  Constipation 0.0 (0-33.3) 0.0 (0–33.3) 33.3 (0–33.3)  < 0.001*
  Diarrhoea 0.0 (0-33.3) 0.0 (0–33.3) 0.0 (0–33.3) 0.591
  Financial difficulties 33.3 (0-66.7) 33.0 (0–33.3) 33.3 (33–66.7)  < 0.001*
Spiritual interests 3.8 (3.5-4.2) 4.0 (3.7–4.4) 3.6 (3.2–3.9)  < 0.001*
 Related to beliefs 3.0 (2.6-3.6) 3.0 (2.6–3.6) 2.9 (2.4–3.3) 0.055
 Religion, positive attitudes toward life 4.0 (3.8-4.8) 4.3 (4–5) 3.8 (3–4)  < 0.001*
 Love to/from others 4.0 (3.8-4.5) 4.0 (3.8–4.5) 3.8 (3.5–4) 0.003*
 Seeking for the meaning of life 4.0 (3.7-4.3) 4.0 (4–4.7) 4.0 (3–4) 0.001*
 Peaceful mind 4.0 (3.7-4.7) 4.3 (4–5) 4.0 (3.3–4.3)  < 0.001*
  1. Chi-square test. Fisher's exact test. Mann–Whitney U test. *p < 0.01
  2. Continuous data were expressed median and IQR
  3. Categorical data were expressed number and percentage