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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to sleep quality

From: Independent and combined effects of sleep quality and night sleep duration on health-related quality of life in rural areas: a large-scale cross-sectional study

Variable Total (n = 21,926) Good (n = 17,320) Poor (n = 4606) P
Age (year, mean ± SD) 55.93 ± 12.44 55.16 ± 12.74 58.81 ± 10.81 < 0.001
Women n (%) 13,272 (60.53) 9974 (57.59) 3298 (71.60) < 0.001
Educational level n (%)     
 Elementary school or below 9834 (44.85) 7324 (42.29) 2510 (54.49) < 0.001
 Junior high school 8192 (37.36) 6657 (38.43) 1535 (33.33)  
 Senior high school or above 3900 (17.79) 3339 (19.28) 561 (12.18)  
Marital status n (%)     
 Married/cohabiting 19,714 (89.91) 15,694 (90.61) 4020 (87.28) < 0.001
 Widowed/separated/divorced 1856 (8.46) 1323 (7.64) 533 (11.57)  
 Single 356 (1.62) 303 (1.75) 53 (1.15)  
Average monthly income n (%)     
 < 500 RMB 8376 (38.20) 6373 (36.80) 2002 (43.46) < 0.001
 500- RMB 6961 (31.75) 5549 (32.04) 1412 (30.66)  
 ≥ 1000 RMB 6589 (30.05) 5397 (31.16) 1192 (25.88)  
Physical activity n (%)     
 Low 7510 (34.25) 5936 (34.27) 1574 (34.17) 0.028
 Moderate 7282 (33.21) 5685 (32.82) 1597 (34.67)  
 High 7134 (32.54) 5699 (32.91) 1435 (31.16)  
Current smoking n (%) 4191 (19.11) 3532 (20.39) 659 (14.31) < 0.001
Current drinking n (%) 3783 (17.25) 3204 (18.50) 579 (12.57) < 0.001
Napping n (%) 15,643 (71.34) 12,570 (72.58) 3073 (66.72) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 24.97 ± 3.61 24.96 ± 3.60 25.02 ± 3.64 0.313
Chronic disease n (%) 13,727 (62.61) 10,601 (61.21) 3126 (67.87) < 0.001
Utility index (mean ± SD) 0.923 ± 0.113 0.964 ± 0.094 0.909 ± 0.160 < 0.001
VAS scores (mean ± SD) 78.09 ± 14.90 79.69 ± 14.08 72.10 ± 16.33 < 0.001
  1. T-test was performed to compare the differences in continuous variables; Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in the categorical variables
  2. SD, standard deviation; RMB, Renminbi; BMI, Body mass index