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Table 4 Factors associated with HRQoL changes on the mental domain (SF-12 MCS) N = 126

From: Health-related quality of life in outpatients with substance use disorder: evolution over time and associated factors

Characteristics Mean ± SD Bivariable analysis Multivariate analysis (R2 = 0.08)
T0 T1 T2 p value p value Effect size η2
Age     0.50   
 ≤ 38.5 36.97 ± 10.59 42.38 ± 11.23 44.49 ± 11.44    
 > 38.5 35.55 ± 11.77 41.19 ± 11.51 43.92 ± 11.23    
Gender     0.44   
 Male 36.46 ± 11.48 42.20 ± 11.55 43.93 ± 11.52    
 Female 33.94 ± 8.07 39.17 ± 10.03 44.945 ± 10.36    
Marital status     0.96   
 Never married 36.13 ± 11.04 41.22 ± 11.02 44.09 ± 10.94    
 Married/live with a partner 36.68 ± 10.12 42.48 ± 10.70 43.84 ± 11.37    
 Separated/divorced/widowed 34.81 ± 12.15 42.08 ± 12.60 44.90 ± 12.16    
Educational level     0.24   
 Primary school 41.76 ± 12.68 43.62 ± 12.43 46.52 ± 13.90    
 Secondary school 35.74 ± 10.52 41.67 ± 10.91 44.50 ± 10.89    
 High school/university 34.08 ± 11.13 40.76 ± 12.51 41.51 ± 11.44    
Occupational status     0.09 0.08 0.009
 Unemployed 37.06 ± 11.39 42.32 ± 11.37 45.27 ± 10.86    
 Employed 34.04 ± 9.96 40.32 ± 11.23 42.23 ± 11.81    
Type of dependence     0.88   
 Alcohol dependence 35.66 ± 11.67 41.16 ± 11.96 44.39 ± 12.14    
 Opioid dependence 36.13 ± 10.53 41.85 ± 10.98 43.99 ± 10.83    
Duration of addiction (years)     0.70   
 ≤ 13 36.08 ± 10.52 41.67 ± 10.88 45.06 ± 10.46    
 > 13 36.08 ± 11.47 41.56 ± 11.70 43.35 ± 11.85    
Comorbid axis I diagnosis     0.66   
 Yes 37.02 ± 11.31 40.20 ± 11.35 45.85 ± 10.90    
 No 35.35 ± 10.69 42.40 ± 11.26 43.15 ± 11.42    
Origin of the care request     0.18   
 Patient 36.64 ± 10.73 40.61 ± 11.58 43.29 ± 11.34    
 Justice 38.25 ± 11.35 47.32 ± 10.57 47.23 ± 10.31    
 Health practitioner 35.88 ± 12.04 42.53 ± 8.93 46.51 ± 11.48    
Medication initiated during 6-month follow-up    0.004 0.009 0.021
 Yes 33.37 ± 10.02 39.67 ± 10.87 43.65 ± 11.57    
 No 39.63 ± 11.25 44.77 ± 10.90 45.31 ± 10.36    
Change in substance use behavior at 6 months    0.13   
 Yes 34.69 ± 10.39 41.27 ± 10.82 44.53 ± 11.06    
 No 41.97 ± 11.76 44.23 ± 12.43 43.46 ± 11.33    
HADS anxiety     < 0.001 < 0.001 0.048
 < 8 43.65 ± 10.19 48.40 ± 10.42 47.22 ± 10.74    
 ≥ 8 32.00 ± 9.08 38.66 ± 10.51 42.27 ± 11.40    
HADS depression     < 0.001 < 0.001 0.034
 < 8 42.27 ± 10.85 45.17 ± 11.09 46.86 ± 10.32    
 ≥ 8 30.93 ± 8.04 39.12 ± 10.99 41.90 ± 11.66    
  1. SD standard deviation, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  2. *Significant interaction with time for HADS depression (p < 0.05)