Skip to main content

Table 4 Factors associated with impaired mental health status during the lockdown (N = 4018)

From: Effect of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown on mental health among post-secondary students in the Grand Est region of France: results of the PIMS-CoV19 study

  Bivariate regression analysis Multivariate logistic regression analysis R2 = 0.19 – H&L = 0.1
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Gender (female vs male) 2.0 1.7–2.3  < 0.001 1.5 1.3–1.9  < 0.001
Age 01.0 0.9–1.0  < 0.001    
Home location (ref: urban vs rural area) 1.2 1.0–1.3 0.06    
Financial aid scholarship (ref: scholarship vs none) 1.1 1.0–1.3 0.13    
Access to a private outside area from home     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Private domestic garden 1    1   
 Private balcony, courtyard or terrace 1.2 0.9–1.4   1.2 0.96–1.5  
 Courtyard or garden for collective use 1.1 0.9–1.5   1.3 0.9–1.8  
 No access 1.5 1.3–1.9   1.8 1.4–2.2  
Difficulty isolating at home (Yes vs No) 2.3 2.0–2.7  < 0.001 1.4 1.2–1.7 0.0005
Tensions and conflicts at home (Yes vs No) 2.8 2.4–3.2  < 0.001 2.1 1.8–2.6  < 0.001
Noises outside the home (Yes vs No) 1.9 1.6–2.2  < 0.001 1.3 1.1–1.6 0.002
Noises inside the home (Yes vs No) 2.6 2.2–3.0  < 0.001 1.5 1.2–1.8  < 0.001
Someone infected with SARS-COV2 at home (ref: no)     < 0.001    0.005
 Confirmed and hospitalized cases 3.4 1.6–7.4   3.1 1.3–7.2  
 Confirmed and non-hospitalized cases 1.5 1.1–2.2   1.6 1.1–2.3  
 Suspected cases 1.4 1.1–1.7   1.2 0.9–1.5  
Relative or acquaintance infected with SARS-COV19 (ref: no)     < 0.001    
 Confirmed and hospitalized cases 1.6 1.3–2.0     
 Confirmed and non-hospitalized cases 1.4 1.1–1.6     
 Suspected cases 1.4 1.1–1.7     
Frequency of exiting the home during lockdown (ref: never or less than once a week)    0.001    0.001
Several times a day 0.6 0.4–0.9   0.6 0.4–0.9  
Once a day 0.7 0.5–0.9   0.7 0.5–0.9  
Several times a week 0.7 0.6–0.9   0.7 0.6–0.9  
Once a week 0.8 0.6–0.9   0.7 0.6–0.9  
  Bivariate regression analysis Multivariate logistic regression analysis R2 = 0.19
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Online teaching delivery (ref: none)    0.01    
 Partial online teaching 1.1 0.9–1.3     
 Total online teaching 0.9 0.7–1.0     
Time working at home (ref: no change)     < 0.0001     < 0.0001
 Increased time working 1.1 0.9–1.4   1.0 0.8–1.3  
 Reduced time working 1.9 1.6–2.2   1.6 1.3–1.9  
Postponement of final competition (Yes vs No) 1.4 1.1–1.7 0.0025    
Alcohol consumption (ref: none)    0.0392    
 No change 0.9 0.7–1.1     
 Increased consumption 1.3 1.0–1.6     
 Reduced consumption 1.0 0.8–1.2     
Tobacco consumption (ref: none)    0.01    0.01
 No change 1.3 0.8–2.0   1.3 0.8–2.0  
 Increased consumption 1.6 1.2–2.1   1.6 1.2–2.1  
 Reduced consumption 0.9 0.7–1.3   0.9 0.7–1.3  
Media entertainment (ref: not used) ¥     < 0.0001    0.0006
 1-Ineffective 3.5 1.9–6.5   2.5 1.2–4.9  
Reading entertainment (ref: not used) ¥     < 0.0001     < 0.0001
 1-Ineffective 1.9 1.4–2.6   1.5 1.04–2.1  
 2 1.6 1.3–2.1   1.7 1.3–2.2  
Physical exercise (ref: not used) ¥    0.03    0.05
 5-Very effective 0.6 0.5–0.7   0.7 0.5–0.9  
Snacking between meals (ref: not used) ¥     < 0.0001    0.04
 5-Very effective 1.9 1.5–2.5   1.4 1.1–1.9  
  1. Bolded numbers mean that the OR is statistically significant
  2. OR, odds ratio: the probability of MCS < first quartile (i.e. impaired mental health); 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; OR < 1 decreased frequency of MCS < 1rst quartile; OR > 1 increased frequency of MCS < 1rst quartile