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Table 3 Comparison of the HSU values of the VAS across the demographic and clinical characteristics of Covid-19 patients admitted to a treatment centre in the Arsi Zone, 2020–2021

From: Evaluation of health-related quality of life of Covid-19 patients: a hospital-based study in South Central Ethiopia

Variable Health utility value (VAS)
Median IQR (P25, P75) Mean SD p value
Sex
 Female 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.689 0.134 0.961
 Male 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.692 0.127  
Age
 0–24 0.725 0.610 0.860 0.732 0.126 < 0.001
 25–34 0.750 0.650 0.840 0.734 0.121  
 35–44 0.700 0.580 0.780 0.686 0.126  
 45–54 0.680 0.600 0.780 0.678 0.123  
 55+ 0.620 0.560 0.710 0.629 0.118  
Residence
 Rural 0.700 0.600 0.810 0.695 0.132 0.927
 Urban 0.700 0.600 0.790 0.688 0.128  
Comorbidity
 No 0.750 0.640 0.850 0.738 0.129 < 0.001
 Yes 0.620 0.570 0.710 0.632 0.103  
Hypertension
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.697 0.131 0.002
 Yes 0.610 0.580 0.700 0.634 0.096  
Chronic cardiac diseases
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.695 0.129 0.005
 Yes 0.630 0.570 0.700 0.613 0.102  
Chronic pulmonary disease
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.697 0.130 < 0.001
 Yes 0.605 0.570 0.660 0.606 0.081  
Asthma       
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.699 0.129 < 0.001
 Yes 0.590 0.560 0.640 0.601 0.096  
Chronic kidney disease
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.692 0.129 0.081
 Yes 0.630 0.550 0.660 0.607 0.094  
Diabetes mellitus
 No 0.705 0.600 0.820 0.705 0.129 < 0.001
 Yes 0.700 0.570 0.700 0.622 0.109  
Malignancy
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.691 0.130 0.782
 Yes 0.710 0.600 0.780 0.675 0.117  
HIV/AIDS
 No 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.691 0.129 0.531
 Yes 0.665 0.590 0.750 0.653 0.112  
Dexamethasone used
 No 0.730 0.610 0.848 0.718 0.131 < 0.001
 Yes 0.600 0.570 0.700 0.625 0.097  
Intranasal oxygen used
 No 0.750 0.695 0.850 0.749 0.116 < 0.001
 Yes 0.600 0.560 0.660 0.604 0.096  
Length of hospital stay
 1–7 days 0.690 0.610 0.820 0.703 0.133 0.004
 8–14 days 0.720 0.600 0.820 0.709 0.229  
 15–21 days 0.640 0.590 0.730 0.657 0.122  
 22–28 days 0.640 0.600 0.750 0.687 0.127  
 More than 28 days 0.615 0.530 0.730 0.629 0.131  
Overall 0.700 0.600 0.800 0.690 0.129  
  1. SD = standard deviation; IQR = interquartile range; P-values are from the Mann–Whitney U test or Kruskal–Wallis test