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Table 2 Comparison of the HSU values of the EQ-5D-3L tool across the demographic and clinical characteristics of Covid-19 patients admitted to a treatment centre in the Arsi Zone, 2020–2021

From: Evaluation of health-related quality of life of Covid-19 patients: a hospital-based study in South Central Ethiopia

Variable Health utility value (EQ-5D-3L)
Median IQR (P25, P75) Mean SD p value
Sex
 Female 0.787 0.596 0.833 0.684 0.302 0.818
 Male 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.689 0.274  
Age
 0–24 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.783 0.199 < 0.001
 25–34 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.778 0.213  
 35–44 0.787 0.596 0.787 0.649 0.328  
 45–54 0.691 0.596 0.854 0.653 0.213  
 55+ 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.567 0.314  
Residence
 Rural 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.692 0.282 0.967
 Urban 0.787 0.596 0.833 0.685 0.288  
Comorbidity
 No 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.777 0.257 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.574 0.279  
Hypertension
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.699 0.285 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.580 0.267  
Chronic cardiac diseases
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.697 0.280 0.004
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.518 0.320  
Chronic pulmonary disease
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.703 0.277 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.596 0.499 0.311  
Asthma
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.706 0.252 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.469 0.596 0.487 0.329  
Chronic kidney disease
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.690 0.286 0.029
 Yes 0.596 0.361 0.596 0.535 0.186  
Diabetes mellitus
 No 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.711 0.281 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.575 0.280  
Malignancy
 No 0.787 0.596 0.854 0.687 0.288 0.859
 Yes 0.787 0.596 0.833 0.708 0.147  
HIV/AIDS
 No 0.787 0.596 0.843 0.688 0.285 0.354
 Yes 0.692 0.596 0.787 0.607 0.270  
Dexamethasone used
 No 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.735 0.280 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.571 0.262  
Intranasal oxygen used
 No 0.787 0.787 1.000 0.816 0.180 < 0.001
 Yes 0.596 0.596 0.596 0.500 0.305  
Length of hospital stay
 1–7 days 0.691 0.596 0.866 0.718 0.227 0.002
 8–14 days 0.787 0.596 1.000 0.719 0.283  
 15–21 days 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.622 0.297  
 22–28 days 0.596 0.596 0.787 0.715 0.197  
 More than 28 days 0.596 0.469 0.787 0.604 0.241  
Overall 0.787 0.596 0.833 0.688 0.285  
  1. SD = standard deviation; IQR = interquartile range; P-values are from the Mann–Whitney U test or Kruskal–Wallis test