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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study participants by folate level

From: Serum folate concentration and health-related quality of life among the elderly in South Korea

Characteristic Tertiles of folate level (range, ng/mL) P
T1 (4.3, 1.7–5.6) T2 (7.1, 5.7–9.4) T3 (12.4, 9.5–31.9)
Participants, n 339 348 334  
Age, years 73.2 (0.4) 72.4 (0.3) 72.7 (0.3) 0.20
Female, % 38.3 (3.1) 53.9 (3.0) 67.2 (2.8)  < 0.001
Marital status (married & living together), % 66.5 (3.0) 66.3 (3.1) 61.3 (3.3) 0.40
Socioeconomic status variables
 Education level, %     0.039
   ≤ Middle school 70.1 (3.0) 73.3 (2.8) 64.7 (3.3)  
  High school 19.6 (2.5) 18.9 (2.5) 18.9 (2.6)  
   ≥ College 10.4 (2.0) 7.7 (1.6) 16.5 (2.3)  
 Employment status, %     0.002
  Employed 29.7 (2.9) 37.8 (3.2) 23.5 (2.6)  
  Unemployed 70.3 (2.9) 62.2 (3.2) 76.5 (2.6)  
 Household income, %     0.12
  Low 47.2 (3.5) 46.4 (3.4) 43.8 (3.3)  
  Lower middle 27.9 (3.1) 27.6 (3.0) 23.1 (2.5)  
  Upper middle 17.6 (2.8) 16.1 (2.5) 17.5 (2.5)  
  High 7.3 (1.6) 9.9 (1.9) 15.7 (2.4)  
Lifestyle variables
 Current smoking, % 15.5 (2.2) 6.7 (1.7) 4.9 (1.3)  < 0.001
 Alcohol consumption (≥ 1 drink/month), % 42.6 (3.2) 36.6 (2.9) 26.8 (2.6) 0.001
 Aerobic physical activity, % 27.1 (2.8) 32.5 (2.9) 37.4 (3.1) 0.040
Disease variables
 BMI, mean 23.9 (0.2) 24.2 (0.2) 24.0 (0.2) 0.53
 Diabetes mellitus, % 30.2 (3.2) 26.4 (2.7) 23.8 (2.6) 0.30
 Hypertension, % 68.1 (2.7) 62.2 (3.2) 62.8 (3.0) 0.30
 Dyslipidemia, % 55.1 (3.2) 54.3 (3.0) 57.7 (3.1) 0.73
HRQOL (score of EQ-5D) 0.866 (0.01) 0.877 (0.01) 0.887 (0.01) 0.30
Problem in dimensions, %
 Mobility 40.4 (3.2) 37.2 (3.3) 34.7 (3.2) 0.44
 Self-care 14.2 (2.2) 10.2 (1.9) 8.5 (1.6) 0.09
 Usual activities 22.3 (2.4) 21.7 (2.9) 22.2 (2.6) 1.00
 Pain/discomfort 36.9 (3.2) 37.0 (3.2) 38.4 (3.0) 0.94
 Anxiety/depression 15.8 (2.5) 17.6 (2.4) 15.2 (2.0) 0.74